Last week, the Prosecutor General's Office and the interim management of Yugra Bank reported that the "hole" between the assets and liabilities of the bank amounted to more than 86 billion rubles. Withdrawal of the license from Yugra Bank, which was already in the top 30 banks of the RF last year, has become one of the largest precedents in the history of the DIA. In October, the court will consider the claim of the owners of the bank to the Central Bank of Russia on the legality of the revocation of the license. And more recently it was announced that the bank "Otkrytie" had been reorganized. Be that as it may, these cases make one recall the largest banking frauds in Russia in the last decade. Experts of the banking sector evaluated the most significant of them.
Today, the Central Bank of Russia annually withdraws from banks 40 to 100 licenses. The reasons for the recall may be different, but if there is a flagrant violation of the law, major damage to the state and investors, fraud with money, then such cases quickly become public. As can be seen from the data of the Central Bank, over 10 years from the Russian market took about 400 banks. To date, there are a little more than 600 banks in Russia (623), although more recently their number exceeded 900.
According to experts, about 150 banks today are either in a state of merger with other credit institutions, or are moving towards bankruptcy. At the moment, the system-forming bank Otkrytie is also in charge of reorganization, which is managed by Mikhail Zadornov of VTB and the experts estimate the amount of reorganization of which is estimated at almost 1 trillion rubles.
Quiet banks - loud scams
One of the biggest scams, about which not much was written, oddly enough, was the laundering of money by Dagestani banks "Express" and "Transenergobank". The total amount withdrawn through these banks exceeds 100 billion rubles, and this is much more than a "hole" for the obligations of the infamous "Ugra." The activities of both banks are connected with the name of Ilyas Umakhanov (the second person in the Federation Council after Valentina Matvienko), as well as his son Murad Umakhanov and nephew Sultan Umakhanov.
In the accounts of both banks in 2013 (before liquidation) they discovered an unprecedented growth in deposits, and all deposits were close to the amount for which the insurance of depositors operates, at that time 700,000 rubles. Some contributors made "contributions" not only for themselves, but also for hundreds of people - according to issued powers of attorney.
After checking the CBR and the DIA, it turned out that the real depositors - no more than 75. But the "daring" banks demanded from the DIA funds to compensate the depositors who were not, for the amount of about 13 billion rubles. There were lawsuits and attempts to pressure the interim administration of the bank, which the CBR appoints. This method of fraud (an attempt to get money to compensate for non-existent depositors) became the "invention" of Ilyas Umakhanov's banks. After the refusal of the DIA to issue compensation from the bank, more than 3 billion rubles disappeared in an unknown way.
At the moment, Ilyas Umakhanov holds a high position in the Federation Council (appointed vice-speaker Valentina Matvienko in the Federation Council in 2010) and did not leave this post even after the scandals. Now Ilyas Umakhanov's claims are not so significant - the machinations of the now-headed hajj are measured not by billions, but by millions of rubles.
"Voice" did not help "Ugra"
Back in 2016, the bank "Yugra" (PAO) was recognized as a member of the top 30 Russian banks for reliability under the CBR, which a year later withdrew from Yugra a license. There was a wide advertising campaign in the media and the "Voice" show on Channel One: no one could even imagine that such a bank might have problems.
The DIA reports published in the media say that "the business model of PJSC" Bank Yugra "was based on the financing of business projects related to the beneficiaries of the credit organization, at the expense of the attracted funds of individuals through the issuance of loans to companies whose activities are not corresponded to the volume of loans received. The credit organization did not actually carry out in any significant volumes lending to individuals, as well as legal entities not connected with the owners of the bank. At the same time, the supervisory authority in the activities of the credit institution has repeatedly identified transactions that have signs of withdrawal of assets and quality collateral, dubious transit operations, facts of submitting materially inaccurate reporting data, schematic execution of the requirements of the Bank of Russia regulations and violation of imposed restrictions.
In 2017, the Bank of Russia informed the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation six times about the facts of the withdrawal of assets by the credit institution and twice - Rosfinmonitoring about the bank's implementation of dubious transit operations. "
The head of the Central Bank expressed his opinion that the bank was actually a "pocket" bank for financing the projects of owners. The "hole" between the assets and liabilities of the bank at the moment is about 86 billion rubles. Is it possible to consider the "pocket" of the bank as a sign of fraud and whether there was a withdrawal of funds from the bank - there is as yet no single position in these matters.
Bank "Pushkino" put corporate loans in the shade
The activity of the bank "Pushkino" could be safely compared with the MMM. During the last two years of the institution's existence in 2012-2013, the volume of loans to individuals by the bank grew by 833%, lending to corporate clients by almost 1500%. In most cases, the scheme for issuing a large number of corporate loans also indirectly indicates the withdrawal of funds. Suspicious was the constant change of management of the bank - several times a year.
Some time before the license was revoked, the bank was sold to new shareholders, one of which was Alexander Dobrovinsky (19.10%), connected with Polonsky Potok. Co-owners of the bank "Pushkino" at the time of the collapse, in addition to the scandalous lawyer Dobrovinsky, were acquired with him shares dermatovenereologist Alexander Knyazev, Tatyana Galichkina and Boris Gudko (it is believed that they were controlled by the same Dobrovinsky).
The total debt to the depositors of the bank is more than 20 billion rubles. And the DIA still can not recover this amount from the bank's assets.
"Discovery" and "Trust"
As loud as Ugra's, advertising campaigns with Bruce Willis did not save Trust Bank, which did not justify the public's confidence. "Trust" was formed from two banking structures, the former "Trust and Investment Bank" and "Menatep St. Petersburg", which were part of the industrial group of YUKOS. "The Trust" burst "because of excessive enthusiasm for consumer lending and attempts to hide the real state of affairs in the bank. The bank's assets, according to the DIA, were 60 billion less than those that were reported.
Debts of the bank were calculated in foreign currency, which worsened the situation at the course jumps. In addition, during the crisis, non-payment of loans increased sharply, which exacerbated the situation of the bank, and information about its problems seeped into the market. As a result - the queue of depositors from 6 in the morning to all branches of the bank, and the management of the bank, which could not cope with the outflow of funds in this amount. In 2014, a decision is made to sanitize the bank - an attempt to save it. At the same time, the bank "Otkrytie" is engaged in the rescue of the bank, which itself is subject to sanation in 2017 ... And if Trust has bought out a private bank, VTB is rehabilitating the "Discovery".
"Bank of Moscow"
The Bank of Moscow ceased to exist and moved to the VTB Group after the capital's mayor was replaced. The Main Directorate for Economic Security and Anti-Corruption of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia announced the identification of two new schemes of illegal enrichment of the former leadership of the capital bank. The Investigative Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs filed a new criminal case against Andrei Borodin and his first deputy Dmitry Akulinin for illegally allocating funds to the company in more than 12 billion rubles. The "pocket bank" scheme worked also in this case.
However, this is not the end of the bank's problems. "Hole" in 366 billion rubles in the capital of the "Bank of Moscow" was discovered in 2011. In the same year he was bought by VTB Bank. The sanation procedure could have become a record-breaking road in the history of the domestic banking market - about 300 billion rubles have been spent on it. However, the latest data on the amount of funds that will be spent on the reorganization of Otkrytie Bank, from 400 billion rubles to 1 trillion rubles, do not allow the Bank of Moscow to receive this sad palm tree.