Metallurgical Corporation "Evraz" expands. She now takes control of - or rather, "in control" - the company's assets "Sibuglemet", owned by Suleiman Kerimov and Ahmet Palankoev. In the event in itself would not be anything special, because the coal company is actually under the control of his creditor - "VTB" Bank. But in this deal, there is one aspect: the main shareholder of "Eurasia" is billionaire Roman Abramovich, but he has in recent years developed a reputation emigrant who has lost interest in Russia and switched on foreign projects.
"Roman Abramovich has gradually been a long time reallocation of their personal and business assets in favor of Western countries - says the partner UFG Wealth Management Dmitry Maples. - For example, on the website Millhouse Capital, an investment company, according to some sources, controlled by Abramovich, not even Russia as a potential country for investment. Perhaps Roman Abramovich evaluates the risks of investing in Russian projects as an unreasonably high. In addition, about 15 years living in businessmanGreat Britain's allegedly having non-domicile status, which allows you to not pay taxes the British treasury to their foreign earnings and return on capital. "
From Russia, however, Roman Abramovich has not completely gone - it is a shareholder of "Eurasia" and "Norilsk Nickel", and in July, owned by Abramovich mining company "Baimskaya" received permission to carry out the mining of precious and base metals in the field "Gerbil" Chukotka (the site was bought back in 2008).
Activation of the "Eurasia" has forced some media suggest that Abramovich returned interest in the business in the territory of Russia. Is it so?
Between the raw materials and innovation
experts reacted cautiously to this version Interviewees "To". "In terms of Western sanctions and restrictions on the Russian business to invest in Russia now quite risky, - says the managing partner of consulting company Alexander Bazykin Heads. - So much will depend on the development of the situation - the favor of our government to these business assets, you need aimosti for them in global governance, the actual prospects of companies. It's difficult to forecast variables, so at this stage to talk about the "return of Abramovich's" premature, although potentially possible. "
However, everything becomes more clear if we look at the nature of the investment Roman Abramovich. This billionaire made his fortune in commodity projects, and now its significant investments in Russia are primarily associated with the raw material. Meanwhile, in the field of raw materials all niches are occupied, and investment opportunities are rare and random. So, in 2012, the conflict of shareholders, "Norilsk Nickel" Abramovich allowed to enter into the capital of the company as a "balancing force." Vladimir Potanin in an interview described the situation this way: "We have adjusted its own irreconcilable positions. Then the process joined Abramovich. As an investor. He served as a balancing function in the event of renewed conflict, and that we all calmed. In addition, people invested money in the project, and I Deripaska appeared more responsibility to the tretim face. "
More "luck" - "Sibuglemet" confused in their bank debt. But such cases are rare. But in other sectors, Roman Abramovich prefers to invest outside of Russia - and live it more comfortable in London. "Fish is looking for where it is deeper, and Abramovich - where to where comfortable" - says political scientist Konstantin Kalachev. You receive a lot of messages about investment fund Abramovich Ervington Investments in innovative startups - but alas, almost exclusively outside Russia, although many of these start-ups founded by our former compatriots. For example, Abramovich Fund invested $ 10 million in Israeli start-up Driveway Software, which is developing an application that collects information about the behavior of motorists on the roads. Approximately $ 15 million fund gained control of the US company Propell Technologies, which develops technology of shale oil and gas.
"Playboy in a large scale"
Overseas location Abramovich may be explained not only business interests and not only the fact that Roman Abramovich as the presentSpruce famous Yeltsin "family" prefers to stay away from the Russian prosecutor's office, but also the fact that, compared to other Russian oligarchs, Abramovich distinguishes a special thrust to the comfort, luxury, expensive toys and ostentatious purchases. The whole world knows the expensive toys former black marketeer Moscow Abramovich - mansions, castles, cars, a private jet is one of the world's largest yacht, the football club "Chelsea". Now a fan of innovation and high-tech Abramovich added to these inexpensive toys, but symbolically significant electric Tesla - such as have German Gref.
However, the football club "Chelsea" now perceived not so much as a "toy", but as a tool by which Roman Abramovich is trying to get in the Western establishment. "Colleague" Abramovich, owner of English football club "Crystal Palace", Steve Parish, described the motives Abramovich: "The owner of" Chelsea "Roman Abramovich said:" The more I'm in the mind, the safer I will feel when Putin for me to come " .
& LAQuo; Chelsea "has become part of the lifestyle of Roman Abramovich, who appears in world news as" the playboy in a large scale ", loves traveling and personally leading negotiations with the stars of world football. Roman Abramovich is credited aphorism "Money does not guarantee happiness, but they guarantee financial freedom" and freedom of the Roman Abramovich happy to use it.
Meanwhile, it all started not so.
Black marketeers from Ukhta
Abramovich spent his childhood in the Komi Republic, in the city of Ukhta, his parents died early, and engaged in the education of his uncle. Higher Education Roman Abramovich has not actually received and the English language still knows little. But he always had a particular enterprise and the ability to tie contacts. His organizational skills and ingenuity were noted at the school - for example, he had saved his classmates from the riffraff, saying that the security forces in the classroom a lot of children. After the army engaged in black marketeering, and with the onset of perestroika - the co-operative activities.
All official biographies of Roman Abramovich said that its business activity started with trading in rubber toys "cosiness" of the cooperative, but the journalist Alexander Khinshtein could figure out what it was business Kislovodsk businessman Vladimir Tyurin, who owned and cooperative "Ray", where he took his first steps in the business of the future billionaire . "Comfort" was, in essence, the Moscow branch of the "Ray." But by the early '90s it was the trade in toys close to Abramovich, and he began to establish a variety of mainly intermediary companies.
It is important that partners Abramovich for "cosiness" were three graduates of the Moscow Institute of Oil and Gas named after IM Gubkin - Valery Oif, Andrew Bloch and Shvidler, which drew the attention of Roman Abramovich on the prospective oil direction.
At that time - in the early 90's - the entire mining industry was the state and private business can only be satisfied with the sale of its products. The raw material traders started their careers such Russian billionaire, Mikhail Bolotin and Gennady Timchenko. However, hOba become a trader, had connections needed to guide state-owned enterprises, and immediately useful Ukhta Uncle Roman Abramovich. Leyba Nakhimovich Abramovich was fairly well-known person in the Komi Republic, the head of the working of supply management "Pechorlesa," and because of his ties to Roman Abramovich managed to start selling products Ukhta refinery.
However, to enter the next level of oil trader Roman Abramovich could only thanks to the historical acquaintance with Boris Berezovsky.
Together with Berezovsky
This meeting took place on a yacht in the Caribbean, where Berezovsky introduced Abramovich Pyotr Aven. Connecting business acumen Roman Abramovich and Boris Berezovsky's political influence - the First Channel host and his man in the Kremlin - was the most grandiose effects, although initially Abramovich had to sit for hours in the waiting room Berezovsky. But it was worth it - with Berezovsky and Abramovich were able to create tremendous raw corporation without having to do the initial capital. Abramovich has outlined "victim" - the enterprise Grigorievichyu products selling: oil company "NNG" and working on its raw material Omsk Refinery. However, for the capture of these enterprises were insurmountable obstacles: the government of Viktor Chernomyrdin was against privatization, Abramovich and Berezovsky simply do not have the money for their redemption, and thus on the same piece of property claimed by more wealthy businessmen, for example, the largest private bank at that time " Inkom ". But Boris Berezovsky and his partner Badri Patarkatsishvili were able to overcome all this. Varnish companies were allocated from the state company "Rosneft" to bypass the government by presidential decree, not wanting to get to Abramovich Director of the Omsk Refinery drowned, "Inkom" mysteriously withdrew its representative directly during the pledge auction.
Later on London's famous trial Roman Abramovich explained his relations with Berezovsky: "In February 1995, we agreed to $ 30 million per year for assistance - the financing of ORT and personal expenses. During that Berezovsky owed bybe able to get the president's signature and obtain the release of documents which 51% will remain in the government, and 49% will be privatized. " Berezovsky denied this version, adding only that the presidential decree on the allocation of state-owned enterprises into a separate company - the future "Sibneft" - he was able to initiate through the chief of the presidential guard, Alexander Korzhakov, citing the need to finance the loss-making television.
By the way, the money for the purchase of privatized enterprises - $ 100 million - in the future billionaire was not, but under the personal guarantees of their allocated Berezovsky bank "SBS-Agro" Alexander Smolensky.
Boris Berezovsky became a member of "Sibneft" Board of Directors, however, as it turned out on the London course, he did his rights are not issued, and the London court ruled: "Sibneft" belonged to Abramovich and Berezovsky was only the "roof."
But in the late '90s, Berezovsky still did not know that and spent with Abramovich another cash-strapped practically deal with the raw materials. When in 2000, Lev Chernoy and his Partnachry sold shares smelters, Abramovich, Berezovsky and Patarkatsishvili intercepted them Oleg Deripaska, and then asked him to merge. Deripaska's company was smaller and had to pay $ 575 million. These money Abramovich and his partners paid off with the Black, that is, the plants themselves have got them for free.
Thanks to "Sibneft" Roman Abramovich has received financial resources, and thanks to Boris Berezovsky has become his own man in the Kremlin, Korzhakov openly called him "the family purse", to pay the expenses of Boris Yeltsin's daughter.
Then came Putin
That all changed when came to power, Vladimir Putin. Boris Berezovsky was forced to leave the country, and Roman Abramovich was among the "oligarchs equidistant" though his position was "legitimized" important social request - to be governor of Chukotka. This governor was a unique social experiment - for 7 years, Roman Abramovich has invested in the Autonomous Region $ 2.5 billion township has received a command of modern management -. In particular, the head of the cult departments was Sergei Kapkov thanks Chukchi episode made a career and later turned State Duma deputy and head of the Moscow Department of Culture.
But very soon, sometime in 2003, Roman Abramovich, was disappointed in Russia. It was in 2003, he buys a well-known, but being on the verge of bankruptcy of the club "Chelsea" and begins "to go to the cache" - during 2003-2005. Abramovich sold his package of "Aeroflot" shares, "Russian aluminum", "Irkutskenergo" and Krasnoyarsk HPP, "RusPromAvto". "Sibneft" was to merge with Yukos, but after the arrest of Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Abramovich - with great difficulty - interrupts the deal and sell "Sibneft" "Gazprom" for the $ 13 billion "for Abramovich's business in Russia is associated with the necessity of constant charity marathon, -. Notes analyst "Lab investment technologies" Igor Dmitriev. - The oligarch himself has not been seen in avarice, but there is a limit. That is why it is so hard, but neatly completed his direct participation in the project on the development of the Chukotka Autonomous envvrai. It is necessary to possess remarkable endurance, as each meeting with a government official or regional ends the need for personal assistance in solving any financial problems. In overseas business projects, there is one distinct advantage: no one will slap familiarly on the shoulder and say, "Brother, help to build a road (sports complex, factory, hospital ... anyone that)."
A resident of London
Around since 2006, the beginning of this stage in the life of Roman Abramovich. After receiving the money, "Gazprom", Abramovich transformed into a portfolio investor. However, Russia has not been forgotten, but in the Russian projects Abramovich already involved in the main remote, and only with strong partners. So, in 2006 businessmen - the founders of the "Eurasia" Alexander Abramov and Alexander Frolov - sold to Roman Abramovich 41% of its mining group, the deal was estimated at $ 3 billion, and the fortune of Abramovich again was the sellers problems - high debt load, "Evraz".
In Russia, Abramovich mines gold, investing in Moscowedvizhimost, but we know that his investment company Millhouse Capital strongly diversified and include a large number of foreign financial assets. "I do not think Roman Abramovich can afford to waste a huge amount of time trying to delve into the vague business model of the Russian company, which is trying to apply in Russia caught up somewhere" Western chips business ", not realizing at the same time the fundamental differences markets, - said a resident of London, CEO of the consulting agency ISTORIYA Vyacheslav Efremov. - I will assume that many projects go through several highly competent professionals who decide to present at the table of Mr. Abramovich's recommendation that the purchase of investing in a particular company. "
"Roman Abramovich in the selection of projects abroad is not original, - says head of the Center for the Study of interaction between business and government, Paul Tolstoy. - The same strategy chosen and the "Alfa Group". The explanation is simple: Russia does not need this level of private investors. EDo analyze the last 10 years, most of the assets transferred to the state (read: government officials) or businessmen close to the president's entourage. And after the story with "Bashneft" political risks have major assets in Russia had become too high. In addition, I feel that business to Abramovich was always secondary, this is its difference, for example, by Deripaska. He is, by the way, and Melnichenko, now just enjoy life, to successfully integrate into the world elite. "
Political analysts say the weakening influence of the former oligarch in Russia. "Dating and communication, of course, remained, - said Konstantin Kalachev. - But there is no influence of the former. We can recall the weakening of people who have traditionally been his protégés. On the surface - an example Kapkova. If you dig deeper, among those who are now called promising single-mandate of the EP, for some reason, there are no people formerly associated with Abramovich. "
As compensation for the loss of influence in the Russian Roman Abramovich got the 13th place in the ranking of most influential people in world football according to the sports channel ESPN (atthan his assistant on sports issues Granovskaya Marina - 24 th place).
The "Chelsea" Abramovich has already invested about 1 billion pounds, he is going to build a new stadium for the club for 0.5 billion pounds, although does not forget about the Russian sport - that Abramovich paid services of the Russian national team coach Guus Hiddink.
On the stage of life has come children Abramovich - they had seven, three wives. The gossip columns often referred Sophia Abramovich engaged in horseback riding and participating in prestigious competitions. Roman Abramovich's son Arkady Romanovich, who turned 22 in September, has already worked as an intern in the "VTB Capital" and has received investment company ARA Capital from his father (named after his initials). Arkady Abramovich Net worth is estimated at $ 12 million According to the teacher of Classical Business School Jury Sanberg, today the main interests of Roman Abramovich in Russia -. This business-projects of his son Arkady, who owns the oil and gas company Zoltav Resourses. In 2013, Abramovich Jr. acquired British oilegazovaya Vostok Energy company with production assets in the Saratov region - the bead portion 10 explored deposits along the northern fringe of the Caspian oil and gas province. Another of his famous project - in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug: in 2014 "Siberian Geological Company" owned Zoltav Resources, West Koltogorsky oil field was discovered.
"As the son of Roman Abramovich, his Russian assets - rather, it is a training platform for the young man, and almost around the critical situation arises assets, - says Yuri Sanberg. - Do not expect the scale. " Open sources indicate that Zoltav Resources officially became one of the smallest oil and gas companies in Russia. In 2011-2013. it suffered losses, and the first profit recorded only in the first half of the year 2014 "in Saratov field - not a major asset. Any opinions expressed repeatedly by different market analysts that the company will gain the assets until such time until it is sufficiently prepared to be sold - for salezhaet Yuri Sanberg. - In my opinion, a dive business in Russia will give Abramovich Jr. a clear understanding of the entire process chain of production and sale of hydrocarbons. In addition, there will be awareness of the importance of the external environment for the company's business. Although, of course, Abramovich Jr. not only help people of friendly investment environment of his father (eg, David Davidovich), but also a professional board of directors and management of the company, which has industry experience in the CIS countries. Almost son at the hands of "laissez-passer". Nevertheless, a year of doing business in Russia should always set off for four. "
But Roman Abramovich he is reaping the consequences of their violent and scandalous life of Hollywood film company Warner Bros. and RatPac Entertainment decided to shoot a film about the relationship of Berezovsky and Abramovich. The basis of the picture put the book by American writer and screenwriter Ben Mezrich "Once in Russia: Rise of the oligarchs - the true story of ambition, wealth, betrayal and murder." By the way, the same author wrote about the literary basis of the filmMark Zuckerberg, "The Social Network."