Fall space truck "Progress MS-04", launched from Baikonur on December 1, dealt another blow to the positions of Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, is responsible in the government for the "defense industry" and space.
In contrast, the influence of its competitors in the industry of military-industrial complex. Two years ago, "industrialists" managed to push the industry people from the Ministry of Defense. Now former adviser "Rostec" director general and now head of the state corporation "Roscosmos" Igor Komarov hardly anyone hurt consolidate assets.
Fight is for what. space agency's budget for 2016 is estimated at 104 billion rubles., exceeding, for example, the budget of the Ministry of Culture. Even severely cut funding for the program space industry up to 2025 is estimated at 1.4 trillion rubles. That's not counting the construction of the cosmodrome. Control over financial flows will provide "Roskosmos". understood "To" The pros and cons of the new design.
Ironically, a few days before the fall of the ship at Baikonur Dmitry Rogozin said that Russia escaped "from defeats veil, offensive accidents and disasters." Starting the "Progress" to the International Space Station is really the first major failure of Russia in space over the last year and a half. After 383 seconds after the start of communication with the ship was lost. "Progress" was not able to go into orbit, due to the fact that the rocket did not quite get enough speed. The ship was destroyed during re-entry into the atmosphere. Damage to "Roskosmos" from the loss of "Progress" can exceed 4 billion rubles. One version - precocious emergency shutdown of the engine of the third stage of the carrier rocket "Soyuz-U".
The accident recalled the story of the fall of the "Progress" in May 2015. At that time the vehicle communication with the Mission Control Center also interrupted after the separation of the third stage. During the day in "Roskosmos" did not give clear comments. Only later it became known that the "Progress" went into an uncontrolled spin. A similar accident with the launch vehicle "Soyuz-U" was August 24, 2011 then 325 seconds of operation was a violation of the propulsion system, which led to its emergency shutdown. The cause of abnormal operation of the RD-0110 engine third stage rocket "Soyuz-U" called the reduction of fuel consumption in the gasifier due to clogging tract of its submission.
This defect is called a random Commission. But Russian satellites fall once a year. And an accident is unlikely to be called. "The problem was the system", - said the head of the Space Policy Institute, Ivan Moiseyev. According to him, he began to break down the old proven technology, which should not be. Academician of the Russian Academy of Cosmonautics named after KE Tsiolkovsky Alexander Zheleznyakov more categorical: "The problems in the industry have accumulated over the past 20 years. This shortage of staff, and a reduction in the formation and financing of the sector as a residual, and corruption scandals. Hence the catastrophe. "
In the third stage engines were installed production Voronezh Mechanical Plant (VMZ) RD-0110. Now will understand and verify. But if after a pending first launch from the Baikonur East due to technical problems with the power cable resigned CEO automation NGOs Leonid Shalimov (he received from the president representation service incompetence and Dmitry Rogozin, and Igor Komarov reprimanded), in the case of Voronezh plant did not happen. None of the company's management has not submitted resignation, although Khrunichev MV Khrunichev (head structure VSW), the Ministry of Defence had to pay 1.8 billion rubles. at the suit of the fall in 2013, the rocket "Proton-M". The investigation revealed that the cause of the accident began to improperly installed an angular velocity sensor in the second stage of the launch vehicle. Engines have also been made at VSW. Alexander Zheleznyakov says that on the last occasion to make conclusions too early, the Commission is working. But the process of restructuring of the industry is far from perfect.
On the need for reform of the Russian space industry is actively spoke at the end of 2011, after a series of setbacks with the launch of missiles. In August, the first carrier rocket "Proton-M" was not able to bring into the desired orbit communications satellite "Express-AM4", then crashed rocket "Soyuz-U" with a cargo unmanned spacecraft "Progress M-12M", he had to dock to the ISS. In November 2011, the automatic interplanetary station "Phobos-Grunt", which first had to deliver on the ground soil samples from the Martian moon, as a result of contingency could not leave Earth's orbit.
December 24, 2011 due to the failure of the carrier rocket "Soyuz", which was launched from the Plesetsk cosmodrome, spacecraft dual-use "Meridian" is not released into orbit.
In July 2013 the carrier rocket "Proton-M" with the upper stage Block DM-03 and three Russian navigation spacecraft "Glonass-M", launched from Baikonur, fell in the first minute start and exploded on the territory of the cosmodrome. It turned out that the accident occurred due to the fact that the technology is properly installed angular velocity sensors on the rocket, turning them upside down.
In May, 2014 from Baikonur launched "Proton-M" with the most powerful Russian communication satellite "Ekspress Am4r". In flight, destroyed the third stage of the rocket with the upper stage "Breeze-M" spacecraft was not put into orbit. The cause of PE was the destruction of the bearing of the steering engine turbopump unit of the third stage of "Proton-M".
April 28, 2015 the carrier rocket "Soyuz 2.1a" from the truck "Progress M-27M" went into space, but after the separation of the third stage of communication with the ship was lost. "Progress" was not able to reach the desired orbit. Pieces of cargo ship had to fall on May 8 in the Indian Ocean in the night, but burned in the dense layers of the atmosphere.
The protracted reform
"Roskosmos" reformed since the early 1990s. At first it was engaged Yuri Koptev, then from the Ministry of Defense called Anatoly Perminov, Vladimir Popovkin, Oleg Ostapenko. Who is the main person in the industry, after the Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, is the former president of "AvtoVAZ" Igor Komarov. The peculiarity of the state corporation from a legal point of view is that it is governed by a separate, specially taken under it by law. Unlike the federal state unitary enterprise, it receives a great deal of autonomy and rises over the top management of its member companies.
Today's idea of the type of state corporation "Rosatom" belongs to the former head of the Space Forces Vladimir Popovkin. By the way, talking about him as an ideologist allocation of space armies of the rocket. In 2012, he proposed to merge the entire space industry in eight holdings in certain areas (missile development, production spacecraft, engines, etc.). At the same time, "Roskosmos" would remain and administrative center, and the budgetary allocations, ie I have become legally and to the customer and the manufacturer at the same time. The man who led such a holding would control the budget in euro 5-6 billion per year. Popovkin like even I managed to convince Vladimir Putin in this version of reform. But the government opposed. Objected and top managers of industrial enterprises, did not want to lose independence and money. As a result, Popovkin only set up all against him, for which he suffered. In 2013, the director of the subordinate "Roskosmos" company, resisting entry into the holdings have his resignation. Then, Dmitry Rogozin, and decided to bring the idea of the United Rocket and Space Corporation (ACCD). In place Popovkin came the next commander of the aerospace defense Oleg Ostapenko, who is considered a person of Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, and ACCD headed "crisis manager" Igor Komarov. "The contradictions between these two structures were intractable, - says Alexander Zheleznyakov. - Everyone was pulling the blanket over himself, wanted to control financial flows. " "Roskosmos" want to participate in the selection and coordination of Directors of industrial enterprises controlled by ACCD. The Corporation, in turn, demanded a right of direct control of the FSUE, that subordination to ACCD had corporatized. As a result, it was decided to create a state corporation "Roscosmos", which was headed by Igor Komarov. Oleg Ostapenko has lost, and the head of the ACCD was Yuri Vlasov. "Interests in space have Shoigu and Sergei Chemezov. Dmitry Rogozin is on the side, speaking only curator of the government - said the director of the Center for Political Studies of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation Pavel Salin. - But the reshuffle did not go to the benefit of the industry, the problem is still not resolved due to half-hearted reforms. "
In a single state corporation, certainly has its advantages. First, create a cheaper structure than invest simultaneously in several holdings. Secondly, it will facilitate the handling and ensure quality control at every stage of its production, in contrast to the holdings, where each will shift the blame on the other. Thirdly, it is protection from external factors, primarily on the US and European sanctions.
"The government has returned to the idea Popovkin. Strategically it was just right to create a state corporation on the principle of "Rosatom", rather than coming up with a configuration that is not clear, as it is now to unite, - the editor in chief of "National Defense" Igor Korotchenko. - The head of "Rosatom" has proved that it is possible to create an efficient structure. The same should be done in the space. " However, the state corporation disadvantages are also obvious. The main thing - it is the rejection of competition between enterprises. Another negative - strengthening of administrative resources and positions of top management of this structure and some conflict with the regulator, which is laid in such a system with a strong head of state corporations and supervises human body. In the case of "Roskosmos" is Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin.
The reform has not yet been completed. The Head of State last July signed a package of laws of the state corporation uniting ACCD and the agency "Roskosmos". Federal Space Agency had to be liquidated in the second quarter of 2016, but this is not done until now. The new deadline - April 30, 2017 "Enterprises must first joint stock companies, and then transferred to the ACCD and" Roscosmos ", - says Alexander Zheleznyakov. - It's a slow process, hence the delay on terms. According Kartoteka.ru service in ACCD transferred to state blocks of shares is only 15 enterprises. "Roskosmos" November 24, 2016 registered a subsidiary company "RK-assets", which will manage non-core assets of state corporation, and on 5 December established insurance broker LLC "SC" RK-insurance ". Non-core assets, their evaluation, pre-sale preparation and implementation itself always been considered korruptsionnoemkimi. Only for the construction of the cosmodrome East more than 30 criminal cases were opened. Amounts theft called different - from 7 to 11 billion rubles. Constantly referred to the scandals related to the non-payment of wages to workers. On the eve of launching a rocket from the Baikonur prosecutor of Primorsky Krai reported that the former contractor East - Pacific bridge-building company (TMK) - has not paid in 1113 to employees of the enterprise 124 million rbl.
Many questions came to the general contractor and the East - subordinated to the Ministry of Defence to the Federal Agency for Special Construction (Spetsstroy Russia). The audit initiated by Dmitry Rogozin, in 2015, it became clear that the Agency carries out the work only 15-40% of the value of contracts. Thus, the construction of the East attracted more than 250 companies, many of which did not have the necessary competence and equipment. Now we are talking about the liquidation of the agency and the transfer of his powers directly to the Ministry of Defense. But this department Sergei Shoigu, has military interests in space, will benefit.
Not all is well and in the companies controlled by "Roskosmos". Former head of the Khrunichev MV Khrunichev Vladimir Nesterov was accused of embezzling 360 million rubles. According to investigators, the stolen money under the guise of payment for work and services, which are not actually produced and do not fall. In November this year, the investigation department of Federal Security Service of the Samara region initiated a criminal case against the daughter of director general of JSC "RCC" Progress "Alexander Kirilina. As head of the department of finance and foreign economic policy "Progress", Svetlana Kirilina abused authority at the conclusion of a state contract for the modernization of equipment for the production of parts for missiles. Damage is estimated at no less than 300 million rubles. December 1 executive director for quality control and reliability of the state corporation "Roscosmos" Vladimir Yevdokimov SC accused of fraud with real estate RAC "MiG". A former President of RSC "Energia" and Vice-President Vitaly Lopota ACCD also charged with abuse of office. The list of such crimes can continue. There are new criminal cases is on the old episodes. Will the state corporation "Roscosmos" to get rid of the loop crime stories of the Federal Space Agency? The Russian space industry is already lagging behind the nine-American programs, what he admitted Dmitry Rogozin. If the manned space program we have to compete with other states, on the long-distance flights can only dream of. Russia's position in the cosmos danger that, in turn, is critical for the Kremlin. This is a blow not only for the prestige of the state, but also in its non-resource budget. Therefore, after each unsuccessful run there are conversations about the reshuffle in the space industry. And the most precarious position in this regard - with the Vice-Premier.
How to reform the cosmos
February 25, 1992, President Boris Yeltsin signed the decree "On the structure of the management of space activities in the country", developed by the Russian Space Agency (RSA). In conducting the RCA organization of space were transferred to the profile, including a number of military enterprises.
In 1997 it began the process of a phased transfer of control Baikonur cosmodrome on the Defense Ministry to the RSA, which was completed by 2009
Presidential Decree of 25 May 1999 the RCA was transformed into the Russian Aviation and Space Agency ( "Rosaviakosmos"). The new department has been transferred, in particular, the 350 companies of the aviation industry, which had previously been managed by the Ministry of Economy.
March 9, 2004 during the government reform "Rosaviakosmos" was transferred to the Ministry of Industry and Energy of the structure and renamed the Federal Space Agency ( "Roskosmos"). The aviation industry was transferred to the Federal Agency for Industry. The responsibility of "Roscosmos" included the launch of satellites for military and civilian use, licensing of space activities, the organization of international cooperation, selection and training of astronauts. He was also involved in the exploitation of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, the construction of the cosmodrome Vostochny in the Amur region, the implementation of the GLONASS program.
Oct. 9, 2013 Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, Russian President Vladimir Putin presented a draft sector reform to separate the functions of the customer (stayed in "Roskosmos") and the general contractor (Go to form associations Rocket and Space Corporation). The jurisdiction of the Agency were only 12 companies, and the corporation has received in the management of 48 companies. December 2, 2013, Vladimir Putin signed a decree launched the reform established by the United Rocket and Space Corporation (ACCD).
In January 2015, Vladimir Putin has agreed with the government's proposal to combine "Roskosmos" and ACCD into a single state corporation. July 13, 2015 the President signed the law on the State Corporation for Space Activities "Roskosmos". August 19, 2016, the Russian government issued a decree №824 "On measures to implement the presidential decree of May 12, 2016 №221" On measures for the creation of "Roskosmos" Space activities of the State Corporation.