"In conditions of war, almost like not to creativity ?!" - Surprised many ideas industrial designer Vladimir Pirozhkov. "Even as to creativity!" - He replies. And it tells the story of the academician Sergei Kapitsa (once they had met at the youth forum): June 23, 1941, the city of Podolsk, factory sewing machines. Two men in gray suits and hats go to the director, locked the door, put on his desk a TT pistol, saying, "After three days, your plant produces it." Director: "It's impossible!" Gray suits: "You have the same mechanical factory argument in front of you?" A pilot batch of products was made three days, that is quickly found drawings converted production, invited artists ...
The cozy family-run cafe on the Grand Georgian leader "Astra Design" company, an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Arts Vladimir Pirozhkov, putting a notebook in which he made sketches of pistols, talks about creative, industrial design and about the arguments. It seems his ideas fit into the concept of "obvious - an incredible", and all of his unusual biographyplace with the business model - as well.
Escape for a dream
Vladimir Pirozhkov was born in Kishinev in 1968. In school, he often filled the back of the notebooks with drawings cars, rather than formulas. In 1989, as a student of the fourth year of the Sverdlovsk Architectural Institute, sent a letter to the designer world famous Luigi Colani (with the address of an acquaintance helped parents, the chief designer of "AvtoVAZ" Mark Demidovtsev), received an invitation response, half a year trying to leave the Soviet Union, left and He did not promise to return.
Won the contest a scholarship of 120 000 Swiss francs allowed to graduate from Art Center College of Design in Montreux, Switzerland, and opened broad prospects for automobiles - from Citroen to Porsche. New industrial designer chose Paris. Six years worked at the Citroen, a company that, according to the covenant of the founder Andre Citroen, "picks up" the customer an interesting "chips". And here the role of indispensable design. Citroën was the first company ever to offer the front-wheel drive car. Epoch-making has become a model Duo CV, after the war fired DS - "Goddess": to notFirst went Fantomas and French presidents. The car, which now moves to the head of the country, made the team, where he worked as Vladimir Pirozhkov. "And I'm very proud of it!" - Emphasizes the designer.
Following the European period was followed by "Japanese", but also with a "French accent". Pies headed the department in the interior design center Toyota Europe Design Development in Nice, where he was "routine", in his view, the work on creating interiors Corolla, Avensis, Auris, Yaris. According to the designer, every fifth car, and riding on the roads of Russia today, designed by their team.
Team Pyrozhkov gave to "design mercy" is not only the best-selling cars of both brands, but also the development of concept cars.
But the most interesting in the "Japanese period," he calls the other - familiarity with advanced design.
"This is what will happen in the future, the next day, - says Vladimir Pirozhkov -. In the automotive industry the horizon - forty years, equal to the life circle of the car from the start of design to total utilization is necessary to count on thirty or forty years ahead, calcd.Vat, which will be the area where you intend to sell and produce the goods. Social movements, religion, money, people, resources, education, culture - all this is built into the future to read. "
Since 2007, Vladimir Pirozhkov reads and writes the Russian future. Seven years ago, German Gref, then Minister of Economic Development and Trade of the Russian Federation, invited Vladimir return home. In any case, the designer himself likes to tell reporters the story of how he got a call and was asked to help with the issues of industrial design in Russia. "And what you may have issues if Russia is practically no industrial design?" - Asked in turn cakes. But Russia has gone.
"I had a pressing question that there is to do, - says the designer -. I know how good design cars, but the cars in Russia itself almost did not create all or a copy or direct borrowing of technologies and plants sale of our automotive businesses western colleagues.. engineering and R & D are dragged to the West - is an indication that we can only "holesertochnaya "assembly and no new ideas. In fact, I do not really like to do, and cars. There have already done a lot. We need to move on."
Company "Astrarossa" was created in 2007 in partnership with Sergei Haprovym in went to work in the apparatus of the plenipotentiary representative in the Volga Federal District and the Federal Tender Commission for licensing TV and radio, and also had time to visit a top manager of various corporations - from " Lukoil "to" Ren TV ".
The first project was the "please paint the SuperJet": developed design, technology, prepared in Moscow team, which was taken to the Komsomolsk-on-Amur. "By the way," Sukhoi Civil Aircraft "work Pyrozhkov satisfied. He spent painting the premiere of the plane." Painting was a gradient (the transition from color to color), which included the application of a flight of a large number of small elements (over 150 thousand.), It is very difficult . The designer not only has developed a color scheme, but he watched over the execution of the work in Komsomolsk-on-Amur - told the "Co" in the press service of the KLA. - For Premiereth aircraft that was very important and helped to present the aircraft with the best hand. "
Then there was an order from Kamaz - to make the exhibition a new cab of the truck. But at the last moment almost finished project did not take place, and KamAZ "friends" with the "Mercedes". "Astrarossa" A converted for the JSCB "Kamov" military helicopter to a civilian. To start the task concept formed: technical, technological, economic, aesthetic, marketing and predictive research software projects - PEMFC (about that until 1960 was called the TOR, then the feasibility study).
In fact, this volume photo album with explanations that were clearly all - from the head of the design office to the engineer in the workshop. We started with the constructive part. "We criticized the fact that we are the helicopters had ever done, but we had a method, and we were able to analyze what it means" as a western, "- says Sergey Haprov -. For example, we have shown how you can inexpensively change the shape of the door to add a lining and to reduce noise pollution in the cabin, advised to make service Topleytion outside the tank, increasing the trunk and the number of seats offered solutions for exterior design, painting surface, the height of the steps, and even the interior trends ... calculate the cost of development effort. This is the industrial design that we have created a product that will actually work and at the same time it can be sold in a particular market, "This also applies to the question of what every high school graduate art can draw a ship or helicopter..
The latest joint project, according to Sergei Haprova was the Olympic torch. "Astrarossa" performed at the competition with three different main sports torch, "with no hope of victory, and not even imagining competitors," says Sergey Haprov. He said that, after studying various models of torches, "Astrarossa" proposed to shift the center of gravity due to the oval form and on the basis of the thought of the gas pretzel (which in the European sense code appears familiar rallying), the idea-fish, dating back to the Christian and maritime symbols, and Firebird. The result is a feather of the Firebird, with cateye and ran across the country. And the fact that the torch compared with vodka "Russian" - the brand is well recognized, the general director of "Astrarossa" takes as a compliment: "It is more solid than the" Coca-Cola What did he so often quenched "-" This is the question. ""? not to us but to the producers - is responsible Sergey Haprov. - Rules tightly controlled Olympic Committee allow misfire in 1-5% of cases. We met the 1%, but the media so negative that broadcast these blunders "Total production of Olympic torches cost the state budget of 207 million rubles How many of them in the development and design.. -" Have been set up as a whole. Trade secrets "But, According to the holding company "Composite" - the main competitor "Krasmash" eventually became the manufacturer of the torches in their version of the design and development of technology would have cost 1 million rubles.
Three years ago the partners parted, but legally they are still together, connected by "Astrarossa": Founder and CEO. According to Sergei Haprova, Vladimir Pirozhkov established company with a similar name - "Astra Design", andn he is now developing consulting and design business in Russia by the three companies, and principally against the exploitation of known brand does not act.
Vladimir Pirozhkov move the project further with a new partner, the engineer-designer of Togliatti Andrew crowberry. The rigid coupling works with them and Janis Beyfus which Pyrozhkov calls "probably the best digital visualizer of Moscow."
For the current project the resource is sufficient, according to the company's annual turnover for the last year amounted to about 80 million rubles. The main income - from government orders.
"Our small but wicked company works with" severe "state-owned enterprises: RSC" Energia "United Aircraft Corporation" Russian Helicopters "United Shipbuilding Corporation," Krasmash "," Zlatmash "CRI" Tochmash "... Now we are in favor . as a company-integrator and mediator in complex processes, - says Vladimir - listing the giants is not easy to work: research and development, engineering and design in Russia has not laid any article budgets Apparently, this is due to the fact that in the 1990s, p.dchas these were schemes for "laundering" money. Budget lines for painting fences and building materials are given to the development of designers, so it is very difficult to build a budgeting system that is transparent and controlled by government agencies. On "Innoprom 2014" was the advice of engineering and industrial design at the Ministry of Industry, headed by Denis Manturov, where in one voice said that the urgent need to "legitimize" the concept inzhinirig and industrial design and enter them into the structure of finance companies. Then we will have the official budgets, for which we will be able to work correctly. It's a lot of money. In the West, competitive companies to invest 5-10% of income in R & D (research and development) and 10% of R & D - in industrial design. For example, Toyota's: profit for 2013 amounted to about $ 280 billion; R & D for 2014 - about $ 14 billion; design - about $ 1.5 billion of our Who's next on the investment in the future.? Design today - a synonym of competitiveness. Coming to a showroom, you do not look under the hood of the car, you choose the look, the quality of the consumer. "
One of the big projects was the interior spaceship to "MAKS-2013" 12 000 unique pieces were created and assembled into a single set of two and a half months.
From what has already passed "through the pencil": UltraFast submarine, which will travel at speeds of up to 500 kilometers per hour. This is the only suitable transport for delivering shift teams on ground mining station, for example, "Gazprom", in the area of the Shtokman field. "This is a major development for the Arctic history, - said Vladimir Pirozhkov -. The project begins in the Art Institute, parallel will be launched in MISA, which will support his research in the field of new materials and I, in turn, plans to enter the leadership of the United Shipbuilding Corporation, which. can become a curator of the project. "
In the same Art Institute has launched a project of heavy transport aircraft, he developed together with the company "Volga-Dnepr", operating transport aircraft. Since the legendary IL-76 and AN-124 slowly out of service, we need a new shirokofezyulyazhny transport aircraft. In close cooperation with apetsialistami "Volga-Dnepr" project involved a graduate student Alexei Komarov.
Recently, the aircraft project, along with a new generation of space ships and battle icebreaker Anton Kroshechkina were presented at the Russian-Chinese exhibition "Expo" in Harbin. "The project is very investment intensity may be continued with China and India", - says Vladimir Pirozhkov.
To have time for 100 seconds
Have ideas does not mean its automatic implementation. Big business moves mainly due to exhibitions. Decisions are made at the highest levels. Usually there are not more than a hundred seconds to interest the person from which decisions on major investments depends. Vladimir Pirozhkov cites sensational recently "Innoprom 2014" project tram R1 from OKB "Atom": "Uralvagonzavod (read: tanks) goes to the exhibition with a tram-concept to a product put on the production, just need to age six. and ends with defense contracts in 2020. This is a very cool vision of the future. Do you have a decent, high-quality, high demand worldwide product nslezavtra titanium shovels instead of conversion of the late 1980s. And what's the difference, how much is the prototype when you're a hundred seconds provided the thing that carried the mind across the country and abroad. You have already worked on the PR, you appeared before the face of the country's leadership strategic thinking person. You probably can, and domain control, or maybe the whole industry? This "chess" are at a very high level. "
People taking investment decisions on capacity, resource, should see the object that they can be compared with the reality. For the production of real models Pies and his comrades have conceived and built Center for prototyping of high complexity - it is such a workshop-laboratory, where it will be possible to create virtually anything. Work is expected to finish in a year. In the two parts of the project - application Masters and Engineering Center at MISA - the state does not stint: the total investment from the Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Ministry of Education and Science is 860 million rubles.
"On the basis of the National Research Technological University MISA inkilometer from the Kremlin on the underground (just in case) plant near Leninsky Prospekt, we are creating a point where you can make any object of any complexity, from any material and any technology. It is a unique center in the world of two or three places. This center will allow us to reach a new technological level. This competence of the country is very necessary, - said Vladimir Pirozhkov. - This is a strategic handicap in international relations. "
As planned by the organizers, one of the functions of the new laboratory will be the training of super-engineers. Preparing "process Special Forces" of graduates Bauman, MEPI, MIPT, MISA, Moscow State University ... The question of quality training - is an urgent need today. "Development of prototyping centers, focused not only on the services of the operational production of prototypes, but also on long-term training of managers who understand the basics of engineering, product design, marketing, technology, organization (integration) production of a new product, of course, extremely important for Russia," - said Alexander Veres, head departamcient to work with the scientific community of "Innopraktika" (National Center combines intellectual reserve of Moscow State University and the Foundation "National intellectual development", has a portfolio of 18 R & D projects, totaling about 350 million rubles.). According to him, the demand for services, of course, should come from the market and of its customers, both large, with many years of experience and youth, trying to find its niche in the market. Large companies want to get the most mature solution, small interest to demonstrate to the investor as much as possible functional and visually appealing demoobrazets. Scientific organizations are also interested in when the prototyping center services development work, but it is evident that the funding of these organizations are not comparable with the volume of large corporations.
The construction of such a center, and revealed the main problem of modern industrial design in Russia. In the US at $ 15 trillion GDP of about $ 400 billion a year goes to R & D (research and development). In Russia, with a GDP of $ 1.7 trillion in R & D is directed about $ 22 billion a year. "If we want to continuehave to play some more or less important role in the global economy, it is necessary to objectively assess their capabilities. As investments in R & D we do kids ", - complains Vladimir Pirozhkov.
However, the main investments (70%) carries out the state, unlike most developed countries, where it is the private sector finances and carries out the bulk of research and development, and the leaders are multinational corporations. "In Russia, the most private of large companies invest in R & D small amounts - confirms Alexander Veresov -. Thus, according to Booz Allen Hamilton, in the list of thousands of the largest public investor in innovation there was only one Russian state corporation -." Gazprom "If we talk about industrial design, at the moment really is not much to invest in our design This largely reflects the structure of production -. focus on the extractive industries, where the role of design is not so high, few large companies - from producers to end-users, where the role of design is significant ( and the share of small innovative companies in the country is low). " We are not sostrong in producing quality goods of mass demand. As a consequence, there is no corresponding element of "good design" in a production culture.
Can prototyping business centers to be commercially viable? "Yes, of course, - said Alexander Veresov - But this is unlikely to be high-margin business:. Required funds for the purchase of equipment, rental of premises, and services necessary to develop the sales system and provide a constant stream of orders."
"Astra design" relies on the largest state-owned companies and is going to open a center at the State Institute. Err twice.
Sergey Nekrasov, an analyst with MFX Broker, said: "To date, investment in Russian innovation has increased several times This is due to the current political situation, the aggravation of relations with Europe and the United States Government has made every effort to interest of Russian investors to invest in the long-term.. projects. The authorities understand that the strengthening of the position in innovation improves eqonomicheskoy situation in the country, and also shows the power and the lack of impact of sanctions on the development of Russia. I think that in the future the government will come up with new ways to encourage companies to participate in such projects. "
Many people want to share
"Do you regret it come back?" - "No Firstly, there is a fire in the eyes, and this thing is not assessed any money Secondly, I am interested in the morning to wake up and go to the cafe to drinking juice, do their own.." Pocherkushkami "And so it works the whole team. . We came up with a neofisny move: creative guys will be sent to some of Thailand to work during the day, while we night and send the results of the work in the morning We will evaluate them and in the evening to submit their comments - is reduced by half of the project period, "- explains. designer.
The relationship with the staff at the special authorities. Vladimir Pirozhkov have had the opportunity to feel themselves European and Asian corporate culture: "The scientific and engineering centers in Toyota City sit, come up with a pedal Suitable two completely identical people in suits and say." We heardAre you a designer from Europe, and we really respect you! Do you have any new development? We are every day delayed for two hours and get the output to a week you had a full engineering calculation. "What is the motivation? Be creative, and therefore competitive, and in the end make the car better and faster."
In Asian companies do not have the concept of the individual, there is a concept car. At the entrance to the Toyota Technical Center hangs a huge mural on which the bolts screwed into a metal plate forming the continents on a world map. 70,000 bolts, and each employee's signature, and the signature of each author is very proud of this fact. Personality is not all blurry "Toyota-mom" into a single, powerful product that does it is through their corporate.
On Citroën's much more personalized and lazy. . "One Friday morning, we came up with the wheel, in which the central part does not turn I went to the engineers and say:" We wheel came up, help a little bit with the engineering liner to by Monday to speak at a presentation - O "." it's impossible! Today is Friday, I wanted to be freeearly to his family to go to Deauville, no time for your driving ... "The difference with respect to the work there.
Aim - to this major problem in our country. "For where to begin? For the sake of the motherland? Ready! For mom and dad? Ready! For the sake of their future children? Ready! Putin's sake? I do not know ... For Chemezov Sechin? Absolutely not! Now everyone wants a flat, a car, renovation-glazed windows house near Moscow, but it is not the purpose for which it would be possible to lay down their lives, time, energy, it is a microcosm of calling me to be a touchdown and pragmatic, but I'm not with them, "-.. Vladimir says.
"Now more and more proposals from the very successful businessmen enter into a share of our company - says designer -. I do not understand what a share or shares, but, probably, it is necessary to it somehow ustakanilos I just about know our market it is weak forecast.. . I could use the annual reports of foreign companies to create, for example, the forecast for the automotive industry in the next five to seven to ten years. In Russia, I can not use the reports, such as "Rosneft", "Gazprom", "Rosatom" and so on. n. to progozirovaniya their activities, because these reports: a) about b) they do not have access. "
Business future in Russia is generally less predictable than in Europe. It is difficult to be in the right place at the right time. While Vladimir Pirozhkov succeed.
No money, no honey
Tabled pieces of cane sugar, Vladimir Pirozhkov eloquently and patiently - no wonder he has lectured in Russia, the USA (MIT), Norway, Italy, China and France - shows: "Have you seen how many cars are imported to Moscow Plus 450,000 cars in? year - a huge number If you constantly upgrade the car (and still the Germans do better), that means creating another car in a traffic jam even if "E-mobility" Even if it is "Maroussia" Even if it is "!... The motorcade. "It's too big ambitions with too little resources. As they say, no money, no honey".
Vladimir Pirozhkov much more interesting to use the time out to create projects 3D- and 4D-even transport, which can be moved in a plane and in space and time. "We can produce conceptualny analogue mobile phone, which was formerly attached to the wire as our cars to the roads - designer confidently asserts. - From the "wired" I grew up system, many have grown. We know very serious designers such as Chris Bengl Patrick Lukima that once moved the understanding of automotive design. Innovations allow to pass to another level. Alone Steve Jobs, Steven Spielberg, Richard Branson and Elon Musk are worth. "
This creative idea, and then the economy. One kilometer of highway Moscow - St. Petersburg costs $ 70 million plant to produce 50,000 Toyota Camry in St. Petersburg worth $ 200 million - is only three kilometers of such tracks. By adding an additional 3 km of the route, it would be possible to build a plant for the production of "basic elements for moving in space" - aircar with the possibility of vertical take-off even from the garden. "The flying object is slightly more complicated and expensive car in mass production", - says Vladimir Pirozhkov.