Heads of oil companies have written to the president. They asked the head of state to pacify the Ministry of Finance and not to raise taxes. He was among the authors of the appeal and Chairman of the Board "Gazprom oil" Alexander Dyukov - people whose work is often overlooked, because all the attention is usually drawn to Alexei Miller, and "Gazprom".
"To" to trace the path from engineer St. Petersburg Dyukova petrol companies and friend of Vladimir Putin to the head of one of the largest oil companies in Russia.
"Do not take our money" - here's a brief contents of the letter to the president of the oil industry on 24 September. So the leaders of energy companies reacted to the Ministry of Finance proposal to change the formula for calculating the tax on mineral extraction (MET). The Minister Anton Siluanov urged to skim the cream from the industry to benefit from the devaluation of the ruble. Minister of Finance, it was important to sit on two chairs - to fill in dire need of funds, and the budget does not interfere with the promises of the head of state. Vladimir Putin uw2015 is not assured business that taxes will not the current level.
The Ministry of Finance has developed an elegant scheme: severance tax rate remains unchanged (the president keeps his word), but a non-taxable deduction of $ 15 of the cost of a barrel of oil should be applied no current dollar exchange rate and lower. As a result, fiscal Finta - namely, the use of the dollar in the calculations for 44 rubles. (The average value of the US currency in 2014 plus inflation), the state would receive an additional 609 billion rubles.
Of course, companies are not willing to part with their money. In a letter to Putin held apocalyptic scenarios of the economic development of the country. If the country's leadership will listen to the Ministry of Finance, already in 2016 will remain out of work 1 million Russians due to lower activity in related to "oil industry" sectors - metallurgy, mechanical engineering, drilling. If you fill the budget windfall from the devaluation, by 2025 the industry will not receive investment of 7 trillion rubles. If you take away the money FEC, petrol price will rise, and some companies will go bankrupt. This was written in the Kremlin and top managers of "Rosneft", "OnionsOila "," Surgutneftegaz "," Bashneft "," Zarubezhneft ", independent oil companies.
It was on the list of applicants and the company, usually located in the shadow of the parent corporation, actively participating in the foreign policy of Russia. Its head owes its elevation "dashing nineties" and relations with the City of St. Petersburg, where he worked when the future president of Russia. It's about "Gazprom oil" and Dyukov.
Under the wing of Sobchak
By the end of the XX century Russian Northern Palmira gave a galaxy of politicians and managers. From the muddy water of the St. Petersburg port surfaced new elite. In those years, the chair of St. Petersburg Mayor Anatoly Sobchak served. His right hand was Vladimir Putin. He was engaged in an economic activity - as a whole was responsible for relations with the business. The future head of state is actively in contact with entrepreneurs, many of them in a few years occupied a high position in the state hierarchy.
Career 24-year-old graduate of the Leningrad Shipbuilding Institute Alexander Dyukova started in "Sovex" nrinadlezhavshey to the late Dmitry Skigin, who was a member of a reputable businessman Ilya Traber environment for Antiques nickname. Traber many years accompanied Dyukova on the way to the top. In 1991, Alexander started to Djukov engineer position. Now "Soveks" is included in "Gazpromneft-Aero" and is engaged in aircraft fueling in Pulkovo, as in the 1990s. According to data for 2013, the company's revenue amounted to nearly 14 billion rubles.
In 1996, Alexander moved to Djukov JSC "Petersburg Oil Terminal" (JSC "POT") for the post of treasurer. Control of the terminal structure, as you might guess, was led by Ilya Traber. The company trader of Gunvor, which is a co-founder Gennady Timchenko (in an interview with Tass August 4, 2014, he recalled that familiar with Vladimir Putin more than 20 years) was trading black gold and oil just across the PNT.
Two years later, he rose to economic Djukov Director of JSC "Sea Port of St. Petersburg." The company is strategically important not only for the North of the capital, but also for the whole North-West region. Yearly passes through it about 50 million tonnes gUzA. In 1999, Alexander Dyukov became acting head of the port. Traber also was a board member of the organization. It is noteworthy that the head of "Gazprom" Alexey Miller, at that time was director of the Investment and Development JSC "Sea Port of St. Petersburg" and submitted Dyukov. Worth noting that in the 1991-1996 gg. Miller served as Putin's deputy in the Committee on Foreign Relations, St. Petersburg Mayor's Office.
Another important structure associated with the port. In 1997, the Company opened "Merging banks investing in the port" (CJSC "OBIP"). De facto, it managed to port complex. The organization united not only banks, but also all the people listed above. Supervised OBIP Ilya Traber, and Alexey Miller and Alexander Djukov were authorized representatives of the association. There he worked as a lawyer Mikhail Sirotkin - now he is the head of the Department of "Gazprom" management of corporate expenses, and in combination - the director of "Krasnoyarskgazproma".
At the turn of the nineties and zero port it was "hot spot." In the struggle for spheres of influence with crime including organizedIt is, and it ended a lot of blood. In 1997, a sniper killed Michael MANEVICH, vice-governor of St. Petersburg and head of the City Property Management Committee. He was responsible, inter alia, for the privatization of the port, and offered to make the state-owned stake of preferred shares of the company (28.8%) of the votes. In the same year we shot the general director of the North-Western River Shipping Evgeniya Khokhlova and his deputy Nicholas Evstafieva. In 2001, they killed co-owner of the Northwest customs terminal Nicholas Shatilo and general director Witold Kaydanovicha terminal.
2000 was a year of Putin and Dyukova elevation. The first elected president of Russia, the second returned to the PNT, and became chairman of the board of directors. Today the terminal - an important region for the nodal point on the export pipeline. Through it, you can drive up to 12,5 million tons of oil and oil products per year. Guide Alexander Dyukova PNT pegged to oil. From now on it will only deal with the black gold. And Ilya Traber quietly left the scene to go to Spain.
In 2003-2006. Djukov headed "Sibur" - the largest petrochemical holding country. companieThieme owned "Gazprom" (51%). The actual composition of the major shareholders is as follows: 50.2% - the chairman of the Board of "Novatek" Leonid Michelson, 21.3% owned by the deputy chairman of "Sibur" Kirill Shamalova, 15.3% - Gennady Timchenko.
In 2006, the top management of "Gazprom" encountered a problem. The head of "Gazprom oil" Alexander Ryazanov wanted more independence and autonomy for the enterprise. Defiant manager sacked. Since then, the company leads to a brighter future Dyukov. In 2008, he added a new line in the resume, as president of the St. Petersburg football club "Zenith", which matches loves to visit Miller.
Last Traber again surfaced in connection with cases in St. Petersburg in May 2015, "Radio Liberty" published an interview with a businessman Maxim Freidson, but soon the text was removed from the site with the wording "The publication was removed at the request of the interlocutor, fear for their safety." Freidson argued that Ilya Traber in the 1990s worked closely with the Tambovskaya criminal group and was simultaneously associated with vlatyami Petersburg.
However, Alexander Dyukova except acquaintance with Traber, whose reputation is highly questionable, not to blame for anything.
Two Abramovich in Siberia
No less interesting is the history of the most "Gazprom oil". The company emerged from the torn from the state energy assets, has gone through the millstones of the 1990s, faced with the key figures of the era and has become a major global player.
"Rosneft" was beginning. In 1995, Boris Yeltsin issued a decree according to which of the "Rosneft" alienated Noyabrskye fields in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District and Omsk Refinery.
Founded in 1949, the Omsk refinery, according to many experts, has been and remains the most advanced and largest enterprise of its kind in the country. In 2012, the World Association of refiners found him the best refineries in Russia and CIS countries. In 2014, he won first place in Russia in terms of conversion rate with 21.3 million tons of raw materials (+ 5.2% per year) with a capacity of 21.4 million tons. Omsk Refinery produces diesel and marine fuel, gasoline and jet fuel.
Mestorozhdeniya oil and Omsk Refinery merged into the company "Sibneft". In the first years of its existence, it produces about 20 million tons of oil (about 7% of the production in the country) brand Siberian Light. For $ 100 million Boris Berezovsky privatized structure of the corporation. Tycoon left to look after the "Sibneft" his colleague - Roman Abramovich. Since 1998, the company expanded. Oil began to extract in the Tomsk and Omsk regions. Under the control of "Sibneft" passed "Slavneft" with deposits in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
In 2001, already being in London, Berezovsky told how difficult it was to take the "Sibneft" under control. He missed a few tens of millions of dollars to buy the corporation. "I went to the West, met with Mr. Soros, in America, many entrepreneurs in Europe and Japan to get loans or partnership proposal. Everywhere I heard the same answer: "We can not give a single dollar", - he said. The businessman said that potential investors assess the risks of working in Russia as extremely high. "Nobody dared to take them onthemselves. Including those gentlemen who later shouted loudest about injustices privatization. We shouldered the enormous risks to put all the money "- said Berezovsky purchase of" Sibneft ". However, it remains a mystery how the oligarch collect the missing money and whether it was his lack of funds. Ten years later, Roman Abramovich, in the High Court in London said that the auction for the privatization of "Sibneft" was a fiction: Boris Berezovsky and his partner Badri Patarkatsishvili agreed with other bidders and bought the company at the starting price. $ 100 million - a mere penny, when you consider at any price "Sibneft" was then sold to the state.
In 2003, another oligarch - Mikhail Khodorkovsky - began to create the country's largest private oil company through the merger of YUKOS and "Sibneft". Oil reserves of the new corporation was estimated at 19.5 billion barrels (almost 20% of total Russian reserves), the level of production - 120 million tonnes (29% of oil production in the Russian Federation), the capitalization -. $ 30 billion company with such indicators could play a field with mrovymi giants like BP and Royal Dutch Shell.
In October 2003, Khodorkovsky was arrested on charges of fraud and tax evasion. After a couple of years, "Sibneft" back under the wing of the state. Millhouse Capital Roman Abramovich has sold "Gazprom" 75.7% shares of the Corporation for $ 13.1 billion. In 2006 it was renamed the "Gazprom Neft". In April 2009, Miller signed the agreement on the transfer of 20% of shares of "Gazprom oil" from the Italian Eni's "Gazprom". Today, the parent company controls 95.68% of the securities subsidiary.
Fate threw the characters of the story. Abramovich and Berezovsky went to London. The first - in the status of the billionaire, the second - an outcast. Khodorkovsky was moved to Krasnokamensk, in isravitelnuyu colony №10. A Djukov, showing itself as a reliable member of the St. Petersburg team, sat on the throne of "Gazprom oil".
Modern "Gazprom Neft" - Energy Corporation, with reserves of 1.44 billion tons of oil equivalent (included in the top 20 global companies on this indicator). In 2014, she was able to produce 66.3 million tons of hydrocarbons (+ 6.4% per year), forYaV 4th place in Russia in terms of production. Net profit for the last year is 188.5 billion rubles. As of 9 October, the company's capitalization reached 715.4 billion rubles. For comparison, the market value of "Gazprom" on the same date - 3.4 trillion rubles, "Rosneft" - 2.8 trillion rubles, "Lukoil" - 2 trillion rubles, "Surgutneftegaz" - 1.6 trillion rubles....
The "Gazprom oil" has long arms - it operates in Venezuela (in agreement with the state company PdVSA), Iraq (30% of the project "Badr" - field of 3 billion barrels), it owns 56,15% NIS Serbian companies, through which " Gazprom oil "goes to the markets of Hungary, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and even Angola.
But most of all corporate management is proud of the development of the Arctic shelf. April 18, 2014 on the world market has got the first Russian oil grade Arctic Oil platform in the field Prirazlomnoe. Team for shipment Alexei Miller (who, not Djukov present on the platform) gave Vladimir Putin personally in Novo-Ogaryovo. The volume of the first delivery - 70 000 tons. So far Prirazlomnoe - the only point of the Arctic inke, where RF produces hydrocarbons. Stocks plot - about 70 million tons, "Despite the fact that" Gazprom Neft "is included in the group" Gazprom ", the company is working quite effectively, -. Said consulting partner Michael RusEnergy Krutikhin. - When Dyukova taken quite sensible investment decisions. No, in contrast to "Gazprom" excessive politicization. Miller did not "Gazprom" manager, and the postman between the Kremlin, where he delivers incompetent reports, and street Nametkina, which returns to the same unqualified jobs. But he, at least, does not interfere with work, "Gazprom oil".
The Ministry of Energy expect that by 2035 production offshore will grow three times, up to 50 million tons per year. The current configuration is as follows: 14 million tons gives Far East shelf, 2 million tons - Shelf of the South Seas, 1 million tons - Arctic shelf. After 20 years, the Arctic will have 33 million tons per year, to the Far East - 15 million tons, in the South Seas -. The same 2 million tonnes in the program "Gazprom oil" plays the role of a leader. Although development of the northern expanses of the claims and "Rosneft".
Implementation of the Russian government's plans may prevent international sanctions against Moscow imposed by the European Union and the United States. Among other things, they prohibit the delivery of RF equipment for offshore development. and is "Gazprom oil" in the black list. Chief analyst PSB Ekaterina Krylova said that the share of domestic components in the platform "Prirazlomnaya" barely exceeds 10%. Despite this, the company managed to adjust to the requirements of the sanctions and to find alternative suppliers. "Gazprom Neft" is a producer on Prirazlomny according to the schedule: six months of 2015 the company produced 300 000 tonnes and for the year expects to bring the figure up to 800 000 tonnes, which is 200 000 tonnes more than planned "- she points out.
But oil production by Prirazlomny began to exchange sanctions, it would be strange to expect that the deposit is conserved after the exacerbation of the geopolitical situation. Another important point - the first Russian experience of fuel production in the Arctic is hardly a high-tech. "It's not quite the Arctic shelf, about aMilitary is so much talk. The sea depth in the area of production -. just 19-20 m draft is simple and cheap. At the peak of production cost will be about $ 10 per barrel - it is very cheap by the standards of any of the shelf ", - told the" To "an analyst of investment company" Veles Capital "Basil Tanurcov.
In the future, the construction of new platforms and drilling Pumping from deeper waters require more advanced technologies. Of course, the import process has started in the "oil industry", but its completion will take at least several years. But even with modern equipment is no company will risk investing in a shelf in an unfavorable situation.
Another factor - the market price fluctuations. The price of oil, due to the global supply and demand balance is low. "With the current oil price level, the real start of commercial production in the Arctic be postponed indefinitely. As time will be the time for self-development technologies. Another thing is that in any case will be extremely expensive projects: to start a large scaleWork will have to attract foreign investors "- summed up Vasily Tanurcov.
In etoge "Prirazlomnaja" platform may well remain a showcase of Russia on the Arctic shelf, and to go further would be extremely difficult because of the sanctions and unattractive prices. Another blow to the project, "Gazprom Neft", and other companies FEC has caused the state itself.
Of oil Cream
Petition to the President in writing and which participated Dyukov, it worked. But only partly. The government has decided not to use the scheme and the Ministry of Finance refused to apply to the tax-deductible depreciation of the dollar. The Ministry Anton Siluanov not confused. There was offered a second idea: to freeze the export duty on crude oil at the level of 42% in 2016 (it had to be reduced to 36%). The positive effect on the budget - about 200 billion rubles. October 9 Cabinet approved the measure. The Ministry of Finance is still the cream will remove from industry, though not as thick as I would like.
In early October Djukov the TV channel "Russia 24" said the freezing of export taxes with a negativeIt appears not only in the oil sector, but also on subcontractors - manufacturers of equipment and commercial chemicals, oilfield service companies, software developers. "Most worryingly, it is also reflected in the revenue budget. Direct revenue from the "oil" in the budget in the first half of 2016, perhaps even grow, but if we talk about the end of 2016 as well as 2017 and 2018, the budget will receive less than if these 200 billion rubles. remained in the industry ", - said the head of" Gazprom oil ". According to him, the Ministry of Finance within six months will have to leave the government with a similar initiative. "This situation zugzwang chess when the next turn only worsens the situation, first of all - for the budget", - complained Djukov.
Representatives of "Gazprom oil" ignore the request "Co" on the work of the enterprise in terms of sanctions and frozen tariffs. Director of the analytical department of the investment company «Golden Hills-Capital AM» Mikhail Krylov said that "Gazprom" daughter exports about 9 million tons of oil, and in the case of a delay reduction nShlina River company will not receive 30 billion rubles. "In the future," Gazprom oil "will be difficult to keep a stake in the Russian oil without new projects, which, in turn, difficult to implement under sanctions", - he believes. For "Gazprom oil" freezing of export duty will cost about 5% EBITDA (2014 figure was 342.6 billion rubles.), Said Vasily Tanurcov. According to Ekaterina Krylova, the company will lose up to 2% EBITDA in 2016. "In the case of the first sentence of the Ministry of Finance Corporation would have lost about 14% EBITDA», - she adds. "It is clear that the budget of the country needs funds, but in this case we should not forget that the oil and gas industry - one of the key sources of its content. And this power is not unlimited. It is hoped that the government understands this, "- says a leading expert of the Criminal Code" Finam menezhdment "Dmitry Baranov.
Anyway, at the oil is not much choice. They said share means necessary. Especially not help even a long-standing acquaintance with Putin. It's nothing personal, it's just the budget deficit. And 47-year-old Alexander Dyukov, whose history goes backE perestroika in St. Petersburg and is closely linked with the City, there is nothing left but to take the salute. For the sake of it, and put at the head of "Gazprom oil" in 2006, removing the rebellious Alexander Ryazanov. However, subject to all - and Sechin, and Alekperov, and the other signatories to the letter to the president. The money the state needs here and now.