How 90% of depositors's funds disappear in a bank

Arksbank cooked the books, and never recorded about 35 billion rubles of deposits in its balance sheet. 
"The new vacuum cleaner has earned" - so forum spring 2014 investors commented on the emergence of new players with attractive rates, Voronezh Arksbanka to this entry only in the ninth hundred in terms of assets. Cramped offices, lack of internet banking and the sluggishness of bank employees was not disturbed by potential investors. Until 2014 Arksbank practically did not work with deposits of natural persons. But the winter of 2014/15 collected retail deposits at 1 billion rubles.

Closer to the New Year in his office was already overcrowded, complained on the forum one of the depositors of failed (!) "Four attempts to open a deposit at the bank have failed miserably. If the first time I just was not prepared for so many people, all subsequent times we stormed the branch on Pushkin from 7.30 am. The result is zero. " Others complained about the slow service - for example, to wait for the money at the closing of the contribution had up to five hours, but high interest rates - from 10% on dollar deposits outweighed the inconvenience. "Today has received interest on Sukharev. A miracle happened - spent an hour in the pot! Evenlists did not - just turn ", - he wrote in January 2015 one of the lucky investors. Another contributor was less fortunate: "Palashevsky. Take from 6 am now 51 minutes went just recorded 158. The queue for sausage in the 90s reminds people with tired and sad faces. "

How to hide the contributions

A year later, on January 1, 2016 reporting contributions to Arksbanka reached a historical high of 5.3 billion rubles., Then gradually began to decline. It's quite strange, because Arksbank continued exceptionally aggressive interest rate policy, said the head of analytical department of the bank BKF Maxim Osadchy: December 2015 June 2016 at the rate in rubles, dollars and euro bank is in the top 5, and in April 2015 city ​​even won 1st place on this indicator in rubles. The fact that during the same period, deposits in this bank reporting decreased by 25%, allowing to make the assumption that the presence of off-balance sheet deposits, according to Osadchy.

Perhaps, by the time the Central Bank has ordered the bank to limit the acceptance of deposits. The existence of such provisions mentioned in the press release of the regulator, in which he announced the recall of Lrequirement from the bank. When it was issued, the representative of the Central Bank did not specify.

Who is responsible for depositors

Bank of Russia has found the hidden deposits in 12 banks. Techniques to manipulate accounting and reporting differed in them, but all united by the event that the various types of fraudulent documents and conducting parallel database, the representative of the Central Bank. Treatment of violations regulator sent to law enforcement agencies in these banks. As far as the Central Bank, "may have incomplete information, law enforcement authorities initiated a criminal case against the former management and owners of six banks lost their licenses: Master-Bank, MKB" Zamoskvoretskiy "Dig-bank" Volga-Credit "Vneshprombank Stella -bank. . Mosoblbank, hiding behind the balance of deposits by 70 billion rubles, or cleaned, but its former owners and managers of sentences already handed down: the former co-owner of the bank's Andrzej Malczewski sentenced to four years in prison, ex-predpravleniya Victor Janin - to seven, his deputy Julia Zedina - three.

"If the bank Admission restrictionsredstv individuals, high interest rates and people stand in the queues, and the contributions fall - these are typical signs that himichat. And to supervision - alarm "- agrees a person close to the Central Bank. According to him, during a routine inspection Arksbanka in March 2016 the Central Bank of the hidden deposits could not identify. However, verification of the CB is initially focused on the audit of assets, rather than liabilities, he explains: "After MOSOBLBANK developed specific research methodology signs falsifying statements on deposits, indicators should be triggered. But concealing the full deposit any check can not detect them. Identify them is almost impossible, yet will not complain [investors], or merge data hidden deposits ( "black notebook"), or withdraw a license. "

For the first time large amounts of hidden deposits were discovered during rehabilitation MOSOBLBANK in 2014. There was more of the balance of 70% of depositors' funds. And to find a black accounts managed by chance, it resembles the source "Vedomosti". During the inspection the Central Bank found among depositors of the employee. It turned out that he was no operation on the deposit does not provOdil, while they were on the documents of the bank: "From the beginning of the chain and unwind."

In Arksbanke too casually have found deposits even before the revocation of the license, says another source, "Vedomosti", heard a story from a member of the Central Bank: "There were complaints, and at the time of the bank's checking randomly one of the inspectors noticed on the screen followed by another automated banking system ( ABS). It highlights another working day - for the same date, but with different numbers. They began to dig deeper. "

"The facts of concealing deposits in bank accounts established during the audit in July 2016", - the representative of the Central Bank confirmed the "Vedomosti". According to him, the working group found that "reflected in the ABS value of deposits of physical persons who have applied to the Bank of Russia for confirmation of the information on the amount of liabilities of the bank in front of them, much lower than the amount of money contributed by investors." To hide from the real supervisor of the borrowings of the population under the existing restrictions on the conduct of these operations, to use special Arksbank nogrammnoe security, told in the CB. License Arksbanka "was revoked promptly upon receipt of the information about the falsification of deposits", said the representative of the Bank of Russia.

CB July 19 revoked the license of Arksbanka. On August 1 Controller said that the bank's management reporting falsified data on obligations to physical persons, as well as counteract the interim administration, refused to hand over the documentation of assets and liabilities of the bank. In statements 1 July Arksbank reflected tools population of 3.9 billion rubles., But in reality its commitment to 40 000-50 000 depositors amounted to about 39 billion, claimed a few people who know it by the Central Bank and the counterparty Arksbanka. Impact indicators for the bank, which has only half a dozen units and a little more than 200 employees.

How to return deposits

39 billion rubles. - Provisional sum, but rather reflects the marginal value of obligations to depositors, told "Vedomosti" representative of the Central Bank.

Last Thursday, the Deposit Insurance Agency (DIA) announced the start of swimfor off-balance sheet deposits - depositors apply for disagreement with the amount of insurance compensation. During the first four days of the Savings Bank as the agent bank received more than 20 000 applications. After considering all the additional supporting documents will know the exact amount of unrecorded deposits. According to the agency, the whole recovery process registry and payment of compensation to depositors will take about one and a half months.

In order to find out how long Arksbank hide the real amount of deposits, "need more work with the involvement of law enforcement bodies", the true scale of the operations still under investigation, the representative of the Central Bank says: "Operations managed to hide in the first place, because we are talking about crime, whereas in the arsenal of banking supervision in accordance with the law no approaches and tools necessary for detection and prevention of crimes. Secondly, as far as we can tell at the moment, it is prepared and organized crime. " In particular, according to the Central Bank, "the perpetrators were familiar with Johnikatorami, which are used in the supervisory work in identifying signs of off-balance sheet deposits and build their criminal activities in such a way as to circumvent these indicators. " Now the regulator "explained the priorities of supervision" and "forced restructuring of working with law enforcement agencies." What is it, a representative of the Central Bank did not specify.

Arksbank reporting reflects the amount reduced in comparison with the actual an average of 10 times, said a person close to the Central Bank: "circumcised among all different, apparently, was the algorithm depending on the day of the week and bring scale. Initial statements were falsified by this figure. It Was ABS, which led the shadow accounting of the remaining money, which does not pass through the accounts of the bank, and, apparently, were abducted primitive. " That is, the bank lived in two dimensions - at the same time there was the official balance and the so-called black notebook with off-balance sheet, taking into account contributions, he concluded.

"As far as I know, everything looked very primitive, no transactions on the balance sheet is not passed, a man in his arms gave out a statement on the onefigure, and at the other hemming documents. And somewhere wrote down in a notebook; in the same manner hid the real speed of the cash register - confirms the source, knowing that from the Central Bank employees. - No perekidki funds, termination / conclusion of the contract, as in MOSOBLBANK, it was not. Just on these contracts Mosoblbank caught. " In Arksbanke, "apparently learned and simply confiscated the cash," he says, "Basically, smart business, it is very dangerous for the banking sector. It is a threat to national security, it is possible to win only arrests ".

Where and how did the money of depositors, the Central Bank does not comment, because it is also the competence of law enforcement.

With whom to ask

Ask for violations will be with the former management of the bank and its owners, who will be involved in the cover-up of deposits and embezzlement. Information on the Central Bank of violations sent to the Prosecutor General, the Interior Ministry and the Investigative Committee of Russia.

In 24 years of work on the market Arksbank repeatedly changed its name, residence and shareholders. At first he was Tambov ASB "Bastion", in 2009 he moved to Thiefonezh Vkladbankom and became, in a few years and Arksbankom. Before June 2013 a controlling stake owned Arksbanka Valery Yakovlev, engaged in alcohol business. Its structure in 2005 were the largest brokers in the alcohol market, as well as the time in 2013, they bought enough distilleries to be considered a major manufacturer. President of the Bank prior to the election to the State Duma in 2011, was another well-known businessman in the industry - Anatoly beefs. Together with the relatives he controlled a dozen distilleries and distillery plants in Kabardino-Balkaria. Arksbank at one time was registered in Kabardino-Balkaria at structures belonging beefs Baksan factory of sparkling wines. Many members of the Board of Directors Arksbanka worked on alcoholic enterprises Yakovlev. In July 2013 the share Yakovleva decreased to 31% in the bank, and since August 2013 he retired from the list of affiliated persons of the bank.

In 2014, Yakovlev became the main buyer distilleries Vasily Anisimov, among other things, he bought 38% of shares and the Moscow Distillery "Cristall". By the time the structure Yakovleva counterolirovali almost half of the production of alcohol in Russia, but in 2016 the businessman sold all alcoholic assets.

Of the current owners Arksbanka only one was involved in the alcohol business: owner of 16.5% shares of the bank born in Baksan Vadim Timofeev previously led several Kabardinian alcoholic factories owned by local businessmen: "alcohol standard" Andrew's distillery, "Alco-standard", Pushkin Plant sparkling wines.

The representative Yakovlev says that the businessman is not related to Timofeev: "Business contacts are not supported and do not personally met." In general, Yakovlev does not know who sold his stake in the bank, said his spokesman: "The sale of Yakovlev was carried out by proxy involving other lawyers. We have no information as to whether Timofeev acted when buying the share on its own behalf or representing someone's interests. "

By Arksbanka reports and data on the website of the Central Bank, at the end of 2015 the bank owned by 10 natural persons from April 2016 - nine. None of the share does not even reach blocking. n Largechum apart from Timofeyev Gennady Psareva resident of Voronezh (18.8%), Muscovites Nikolai Fyodorov (14.3%), Sergei Drobizheva (8.2%) and Oleg Saninsky (6.4%). Muscovites Yashechkin Alexey and Alexander Gerasimenko at 3.3 and 2.15%, respectively, Alexander Kaftanov from Moscow Domodedovo - 3.3%, and are registered in Naryan-Mar Grigory Filippov - 3.5%. Some of the co-owners of "Vedomosti" could not be found, if not managed and reliably determine if they have any other business. But a few, and career and personal business were related to the financial sector.

Gerasimenko led board Arksbanka half years until April 2015 when he changed the post to his deputy Dina Pakhomova. She made a quick career in the bank: two years ago she came to the bank to post an operating office in Belgorod, soon became an advisor predpravleniya, then his deputy. Before Arksbanka Pakhomov an operating office of the Belgorod branch Investtradebank, in 2009-2011. He worked Belgorodpromstroybanke.

Pakhomov and led the bank at the time of the revocation of his license, as she entersand the board of directors. But shares in Arksbanke she did not.

Gerasimenko, as well as another member of the board Arksbanka - Roman Feshenko worked in banks lost their licenses. Gerasimenko headed the legal department Deal-bank (license revoked in December 2015) and the bank "Evromet" (August 2015), Feshenko also worked in "EUROMET" (head of credit management and advisor predpravleniya), which came from Natsprombanka, who lost license in 2011

In addition Pakhomova the bank's board of directors consisted of four people. He headed his Fedorov - NAUFOR qualified specialist in investment funds and private pension funds management. Since 2012, he worked as a manager RSX Capital hedge fund. In June last year, Fedorov established and headed the Moscow "PCX capital" Ltd. with a registered capital of 37 million rubles. and the main activity of "capital investments in securities". Contact Fedorov failed: specified in the "SPARK-Interfax" phone company did not respond.

Once on the board Drobizhev, since 2009 belongs to the board of directors of OJSC "Volga", which is headed by businessman Shalva Breus. "Volga" - odesJohn of the country's largest producers of newsprint.

The last two members of the Board of Directors - Roman Starkov and Ivan Gusakov - are not shareholders of the bank. Starks has been Deputy General Director of NP "National League facilitate Valuation, Audit, consulting activities." He refused to talk with the correspondent of "Vedomosti".

Gusakov MGIMO graduate four years he worked in the Federal Fund for Housing Development, rising to deputy head of the department. In 2014, he became director of development and co-owner of Moscow company "Russian investment company" (RIO), in which he is now 38.4%. RIO manages several mutual funds, in particular, bonds and real estate funds, hedge funds.

In an interview with "Vedomosti" Gusakov assured that it has nothing to do with the bank, although it was a member of its board. How he got there and any of the shareholders represented, Gusakov says. He claims that he never participated in the meetings of the Board and had no relation to the bank's operations. By eof him, he was not even familiar with Fedorov, who served as Chairman of the Board of Directors. This Gusakov emphasizes that Arksbank and RIO have never had any relationship - "financial, legal, or agency."

From the bank's owners most friendly non-banking business now Saninsky. Saninsky - current and former supervisor, co-owner of a dozen suburban non-profit partnerships in the suburbs (such as "village Kolokolova", "Village Waterfront," "Village Bunkovskie pine", "village Ruza Resort", "village Sonja," "Aquamarine" "Clear Dawns", "Meadow village", "Opushkino village" "village of Forest river," "village Emerald stream"), as well as the owner of 50% of the Moscow of "Native land".

The other half have general director Sergei Mazenkova company. "Native Land" on its website, citing resource rating for 2014 and 2015 years., Referred to himself as one of the leading developers and land owners in the suburbs and write that they own more than 60 villages in different districtsoskovskoy area. At least part of the land, "Native land" and personally Saninsky acquired while Arksbank actively attracting deposits from the public. For example, in 2015 at auction Saninsky DIA bought out one of the sites, the agency inherited during rehabilitation Russian Development Bank - 32.2 hectares of RUR 40,160,000. The representative of the DIA reported that Saninsky previously participated in the bidding agency, bought one of the sites, in 2012

Talk to yourself Saninsky "Vedomosti" failed. "He simply does not have time for that", - he explained the employee of the company "Native land". But he conveyed Saninsky: "He once asked friends to participate and said that you can earn money. What does the bank, he did not know. "