How Belarus earns on the Russian food embargo

Everyone says Belarus has benefited from the ban on the import of products in Russia. But how big is the profit?
According to customs, at times grows only import to Belarus, while exports to Russia - only by tens of percent. "Vedomosti" to understand the causes of product boom in the neighboring country

Location products

Since the introduction of the product of the embargo has been almost four months, stocks of products from countries that have fallen under the sanctions, Russian networks for the most part over. Where they found a replacement?

The milk and yogurt, more than half of the shortfall due to the embargo of goods could replace the production of the Russian and Belarusian producers, told the representative of "Lenta" Anna Meleshina. "In the category of cheese by more than 25% increase in the share of deliveries from Belarus, began deliveries of Swiss cheese. "Tape" talks about the beginning of deliveries of cheeses from South America and Tunisia. At the beginning of 2015, we expect deliveries of the new line of Finnish Valio yoghurt with their Russian production to replace those kinds of yogurt, to be banned in the framework prodembargo. Before the ban, a major supplier of beef to the "tape" along with Brazil and Belarus was Lithuania, and today lithoWCSS meat completely replaced Belarus, the share of which increased by 10-15%. Major supplier of apples and frozen vegetables instead of Poland became Serbia "- lists Meleshina. In the "Auchan" became more of Belarusian dairy products, vegetables, fruits, said a representative of the network. Among the suppliers of the company now has fruit growers of Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Morocco, Serbia and South Africa, the fish - from Russia, China and the Faroe Islands, and meat - from Argentina. Many vegetables and fruits supply is now via San Marino Republic, to which sanctions do not apply, but in fact all of these apples and pears have been grown in Italy and France, says one regional retailer. And the other one says that now the forbidden fruit and vegetables from countries can be purchased via Azerbaijan, the documents will indicate that the products are grown in the South Caucasus. Azerbaijan Customs Committee does not provide data on the volume of shipments of such products from the republic in Russia. Australian beef can be ordered through New Zealand, which do not apply sanctions, shares the secret Vladrings small stores. "Note: New Zealand beef has now appeared in many stores, although in this country, in principle, on the export of beef do not produce in this country are bred sheep, not cows', - he says.

In August, Russia in response to international sanctions imposed a ban on imports of dairy, meat and fish products, as well as fruits and vegetables from the EU, US, Canada and Australia. And in September, in Belarus, according to the State Customs Committee (SCC) of the Republic, there was a dairy boom: the import of dairy products from foreign countries increased compared to the same month last year, 117 times, fruits and vegetables - more than 2 times. The importation of fish also increased significantly (see. Infographic). The exports of the same products in Russia, according to the assessment of the SCC is growing at a slower pace, and according to the Federal Customs Service (FCS), and completely reduced. These reliable, no errors, confirmed the "Vedomosti" representatives of the State Customs Committee and the Federal Customs Service.

"Vedomosti" went to Belarus to understand what caused the growth in demand for food banned in Russia and where does the timeItza in the Belarusian and Russian customs data.

The fact imports

"Ever since the Customs Union came, try another mind you, how many and which of us you removed", - joked the customs broker from Belarus. Customs controls between Russia and Belarus is not, and in fact the data on the volume of trade between the two countries settle the tax authorities, which the importers are required to pay VAT. Always it turns out that products from Belarus to Russia, according to the State Customs Committee, delivered much more than according to the FCS. There are several reasons, the source "Vedomosti" explains. Firstly, Russia writes in its export all the products that are sent from its territory to the neighboring country, while Russia recorded imports at the expense of the country that produced the product. Secondly, there are serious errors in accounting: Belarusian companies, many of which are partially or fully owned by the state, report on their activities much more accurately than their Russian counterparts, says the broker. And since the introduction of Russian grocery sanctions, taking into account is even more difficult: the importers and exporters profitable show, where in fact come the products and in what quantities, and foreign trade goes into the shadows, he adds.

If you do not count, at least to verify that imported from Belarus to Russia countless trucks, trying to Rosselkhoznadzor. Office August 11 opened six phytosanitary posts at the entrance to Russia and carries out checks on fruit and vegetable markets and distribution centers bordering areas of Belarus. "At the post stopped the van, which will show the Rosselkhoznadzor officer, but we check the availability of documents and inspect the accessible part of the goods for compliance with these documents", - told "Vedomosti" deputy head of quarantine phytosanitary control at the state border and Phytosanitary Surveillance of the territorial Office of Rosselkhoznadzor for Bryansk and Smolensk regions Nina Anishenkov. In the presence of reporters, "Vedomosti" the inspector examined the wagon with potatoes (potatoes before Belarusians are not packed up and labeled, and are now packaged in paper bags and append markedoh) and three trucks with production of "Santa Braemar" - mussels and smoked salmon, another four cars with the logos of the company passed without inspection. At this time, the inspector found no violations.

All in all, the day staff inspect about 50 trucks and fix violations 1-2 tells Anishenkov. This is much less than it was in August, immediately after the imposition of sanctions, she said. Then in Russia were products without any labeling or marking with obviously false. Experienced staff, 10 years of checking loads, learned in fruits and vegetables of the label Made in Belarus Dutch cabbage and Spanish plums. Who is familiar with their eyes fruits and vegetables come with certificates of those countries which had not been among the major exporters, - Morocco, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, says Anishenkov.

Belarusians became clear on the paperwork cleared cargo - in their country of origin is listed Belarus and other countries that do not fall under the sanctions, said Anishenkov. But often in these documents the inspector finds violations, Fashiondigits together, the staff, issue certificates in the truck did not even looked. For example, one of the last violation was a load of apples, who had come with a certificate of pears, continues Anishenkov.

Most of all violations in the documents furnished by "Beltamozhservice," she says. It is the largest exporter in Belarus, state-owned company dealing with customs clearance of cargoes. Cargo to Russia via Belarus, according to the rules of the Customs Union customs clearance can be in any of these countries. Now importers prefer to pass customs clearance in the territory of Belarus, says Anishenkov. This gives an indication of the fact that after the imposition of sanctions utilization of temporary storage on the territory of the Smolensk region has decreased by 10 times - from 60 to six machines.

Managers of large Belarusian enterprises advised to "Vedomosti" look at the temporary storage warehouse "Beltamozhservice". Surprisingly, it comes to them as products from EU countries, but it turns out a lot of products from countries not fallen under the embargo, he explains. of ite said, and one of the Rosselkhoznadzor employees. However, to deal with these strange "Vedomosti" failed. Manual "Beltamozhservice" promised "Vedomosti" comment on the situation later in the strictly protected warehouses of the company correspondents is not allowed. According to documents violations with no products that are brought, and then make out, the employee objects to the State Customs Committee of Belarus.

The figures of the Rosselkhoznadzor checks from 11 August to 12 November are as follows: from the proven 90 000 tonnes 72% was customs cleared or produced in Belarus - in roughly equal proportions. Customs Clearing products, according to the documents, was made in not fallen under embargo grocery Turkey, Macedonia, Albania, Israel, Chile, Serbia, Morocco, Bosnia and Herzegovina and even South Africa.

From 5660 the parties breaches were only 213. In 80% of cases, the problem was to import products without any phytosanitary certificates and labels - mainly potatoes, carrots and beets.

In other cases, prohibited products have tried to pass off as allowed. Most cases, when issued in Belarussecond side of phytosanitary certificates country of origin has been specified, and on the label - the other. For example, Moldovan and Polish, Hungarian, Italian and Spanish fruit and vegetables have been recorded as a Belarussian, Dutch salad - the Israeli, Polish pepper - a Macedonian, there were several instances when the Belarusian phytosanitary certificates were simply fake.

"On the part specifically deleted mark, and very crooked: boxes ragged, but they were pieces glued before labels with distinct words" Spain "," Poland "- he says that it looks like a typical problem with marking, Head of Phytosanitary Surveillance Rosselkhoznadzor Alexander Isaev.

But this is only a small fraction of the actual abuses, laments Rosselkhoznadzor officer, who requested anonymity. "Our examination of the surface. Ask climb deep into the wagon inspectors do not have the right under the legislation of the Customs Union, so carriers are placed outside of the normal product, and can dig into anything "- aboutyasnyaet it. "All the Belarusian direction of overlap, we can not" - recognizes Isaev.

Exports take off

One of the most common ways to import prohibited products in Russia, until recently, was a false transit in Kazakhstan. From proven Rosselkhoznadzor goods 20%, documents are sent precisely in this country - the Customs Union, and they contain only products from the EU and Moldova are prohibited from being imported into Russia, it noted in a statement Rosselkhoznadzor for Bryansk and Smolensk regions. Goods coming to Belarus from Europe, are in the country customs clearance and the Belarusian certificates are sent via Russia ostensibly in Kazakhstan, but it is suspected that they do not reach to the destination, settling on fruit and vegetable bases and Russian markets, complained, "Vedomosti" Anishenkov. Prove it is not, because the legislation of the Customs Union is not provided for the input and output control of the transport units being moved between the countries - participants of the Customs Union, and keep track of where the cargoIt unloaded, almost impossible, but there is circumstantial evidence. "Recently we had a case with products from Poland to the Polish and Belarusian certificates issued to Kazakhstan, Petropavlovsk. We have given instructions that the inspector shall affix a stamp on certificates of transit products. October 24 this car drove into the Pskov region, and it made a mark. Three days later, on October 27 the same machine with the same number with the same instruments and the range of products trying to enter through the Bryansk. These people are so inattentive that he did not pay attention to the fact that they have on the certificate is already our stamp. It is clear that for three days the car could not get to Kazakhstan, to unload, to come back again and go to boot again. We have already asked the Kazakhstan information, how many such machines came to them as they have recorded and monitored, but, unfortunately, there is no response, "- told" Vedomosti "Isayev. At the end of last week, Rosselkhoznadzor has tried to cover this loophole for unscrupulous importers, demanding that tranzitnye goods from the EU in Kazakhstan are processed exclusively on the Russian border.

We do not eat, so rework

Still, most of the products imported to Belarus are Belarusian legitimately. Even at the time of the introduction of the embargo grocery President Alexander Lukashenko called on local producers "move" and "make money" by increasing the supply of products in Russia. And they need to produce from European raw materials cheapened, sure Lukashenka.

Therefore, breast grow back expert Tatiana Rybalova data of the Belarusian State Customs Committee of the striking growth of imports of dairy products are not surprising. "Belarusians immediately announced that they would purchase depreciating due to the Russian sanctions European milk to make cheese from it and powdered milk, and send their own products in Russia. In cheese production consumes a lot of milk - at a ratio of 8 to 1, "- she explains. "Our factories are increasing their purchases in Europe, trying to make as much cheese to ensure that the whole of Russia", - withinvites fellow Minsk State Institute of meat and dairy industry. The possibilities for this they have because of the production of underutilized: for example, to the sanctions a year Belarusian companies produced 140,000 tons of cheese, but it can increase production by almost 1.5 times to 200 000 tonnes, said the source "Vedomosti".

Belarusian companies are importing milk from Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, and in Russia "weight" of dairy products imported much less because the Belarusians use the raw material for the production of cheese, powdered milk and doing inventories, explains deputy head of Territorial Administration of the Rosselkhoznadzor Antonina Garpenko. Increase and meat import: previously imported raw materials meat plants in Belarus were hardly worked, and now began to slowly bring him, she said.

Head of Rosselkhoznadzor Sergey Dankvert particularly noted the two companies, increase the supply of raw materials cheapened European. According to him, in September, the company "Santa Braemar" dramatically increased the supply of fish from Norway, and the company "Savushkin Product" & mdash; dairy products from Poland. For example, "Savushkin Product" in July has delivered 12 batches of 260 tonnes, and from 1 to 15 November, two weeks - 140 batches of more than 3000 tons, in October, they have delivered more than 8,000 tons, in August - 7500 m. Purchase pasteurized raw materials grown in the EU, the delivery of finished products to Russia in August - September increased by 25%, said a month ago, the press secretary of the "Savushkin product" Elena Babkin. Now the company does not comment on this issue, said "Vedomosti" her deputy. Do not discuss steel production and supply in Russian and "Santa Bremore," a company spokesman promised to comment on the situation later. Both companies belong to Alexander Moshensky, which local media called close to Lukashenko.

"Santa Braemar" fully restored production volumes, which fell after the ban on the import of fish from Norway to Russia and the actual stopping of the processing plant in Noginsk near Moscow, says one of the company's partners. Enterprise managed to make it through the expansion of production in Brest on the Polish border, so now the fish nroduktsiya under the brand name "Russian Sea»  produced in Belarus, he said.

The correspondent of "Vedomosti" to visit the company in Belarus failed: leadership refused to take journalists to learn that they are interested in production volume and import in Russia. The representative of a large company "Orshasyrzavod" told "Vedomosti" that their plant with Russian works in the minimum volume - a half-baked and supplies small batches of ice cream, and in both directions of the supply volumes have not changed in recent years.

Deputy Director General of the Vitebsk "Milk" Raisa Voloshko said "Vedomosti" that their company purchases raw materials for European did not increase. It is generally believed that the hype surrounding increasing deliveries of Belarusian products in Russia "was created by journalists": "We have not changed anything, we worked as a stable and working, and almost all the way and work in Belarus." "Why increase? - She wonders. - What you have from Europe something you did not notice on the shelves, that something is missing "Belarusian?Kie suppliers of dairy products is almost completely offset the lack of Russian networks in European products, admitted to "Vedomosti" representatives of large networks.