How the Moscow metro is managed

The incredible pace of new construction and commercialization activities in the subway led to distortions in management, which could affect safety.

According to official statistics, subway, the dynamics of almost all the safety performance of the years 2010-2013. improved. Cases malfunction underground for use in the underground classification divided into the crash, accident, event and damage. The first and only in the history of the underground crash occurred in 2014. During 2011-2013. in the subway was two accidents: in April 2012, broke down the escalator at the station. M. "Komsomolskaya", and in March 2014 podtopilo way on the stretch "Day" - "Izmailovskaya". Total damage to the subway for the period from 2011 to 2014 decreased (2011 - 2237 injuries, 2012 - 2111 2013 - 2065 2014 - 1043). However, some accidents that have received wide publicity, was not caused by the subway: it's flooding of ways as a result of work on the water pipe, and the breakdown of the pile in the subway tunnel on the stretch "Avtozavodskaya" - "Kolomna" the fault of a third party building organization, emphasized in a press metro service. The number of events - violations secu-minute traffic on the underground wine is also reduced (in 2011 - 38 events in 2012 - 30 2013 - 32 2014 - 17), stated in reply to a request "Vedomosti".

Tragedy on Arbat-Pokrovskaya line [train crash on July 15 due to the deaths of 23 people and more than 270 injured] crossed the tremendous work that was carried out in the subway in recent years ", - said the mayor of Moscow, Sergei Sobyanin, announcing the resignation of Ivan Besedin from his post as chief of the State Unitary Enterprise "Moscow Metro". Besedin was appointed to this post 3.5 years ago instead Dmitry Gaeva, who headed the subway 16 years, the team of the former mayor, Yuri Luzhkov. Sobyanin explained what he meant by the "great work": means that the city allocates rolling stock and improving the infrastructure of the Moscow metro during this time increased at times, staff salaries have increased, the number of technical failures fell. In 2013, the city budget has been allocated to the underground more than 122 billion rubles. against 24 billion in 2011. The number of failures that occurred through the fault of the underground, falls from year to year, they say in GUPe. However, ifof coarse state of emergency, according to the information falling into the media, is growing: for example, in 2010 there was no accident, after which passengers would have to apply to physicians, and for 2013 - for four (see infographic.). "When Dmitry Gayev subway worked like clockwork, when Ivan Besedin mechanism has failed" - lamenting a man, long time worked in the subway construction system. Why investing is not helped to make this form of transport safer?

What do not spare money

Sobyanin's team one of the main problems has made the elimination of traffic jams in Moscow and is going to solve it, transplanting car owners on public transportation, especially the subway. Money for its development do not spare: according to the program to modernize and improve the organization of public transport by 2021 in the capital should appear more than 160 km of new subway lines and 78 new stations, including second interchange ring, and more - intercept parking, transport -peresadochnye units (TPU), and so on. f. Only the construction of new lines and stations will be allocated 1.24 trillion rubles. The pace of implementation of the plan are high: three gode to open 12 new stations put 25 km of new lines. But it is necessary to build more quickly to the task. The rush is due to the fact that now 30% of subway lines during rush hours working with a full load and passenger traffic in the coming years may be increased by a third to 3.2 billion per year. The authorities failed for two years to unleash the world's largest construction projects - in the absence of completed projects, policies, programs, Sobyanin told about the development of the underground: "step over 3-4 steps, sometimes even risking anything."

Along with the new construction, the Moscow authorities were going to increase the income from the underground - judging by the comments, it was the second priority task. Ideas on how to increase revenue, officials have a lot: it is the creation of virtual stores, and the reorganization of trade in the transitions, and the construction of the TPU, and markets management at subway stations, and the development of advertising in the subway. "Therefore Besedina invited - as an effective manager, well versed in the economy", - says Metro employee. He went to the whole problem of science, declaringin 2013-2014. tenders among the most respected consulting firms. Won their McKinsey, has made the most expensive for the price offer. Now she is for RUB 134.6 million. develops recommendations for nebiletnymi income subway management company, for 227 million rubles. - Recommendations for the creation of a positive image of the metro and 90 million rubles. - Its strategic business plan development. Such a portfolio of orders has allowed the company to be in the top ten largest contractors of the Moscow metro.

Among the objectives of the underground business strategies listed improve service quality, operational efficiency and investment activities, management of non-core assets, but to increase safety while out of the question - the item was skipped, surprised PwC partner Vadim Khrapoun. His company also participated in the tender. It would be appropriate to compare the current state of security of transportation of passengers with international practice and think that can be improved, says Khrapoun. In Sochi for the Olympics just a security tied for first place in the development of transport concept, adds a.

New features in the metro was too much to the detriment of the old sums up man, long time worked in the subway construction system: "At the hanged Besedina new kilometers of tracks, stations, markets, parking lots, shopping pavilions, and he took all limp and appeared extreme."

What is not enough money

As can be seen from the law on the budget of Moscow, 80% of the cost of the subway is on the line for the development of the construction department, in fact new construction. What remains on the maintenance and upgrading of existing infrastructure? The Metro and the City Hall, "Vedomosti" that number was not called. What makes the PMU itself and whether it is earned, not disclosed. We only know that the proceeds of the Moscow Metro in 2013 amounted to about 49 billion rubles., Of which about 45 billion accounted for by ticket revenues. From the information about the competitions held by the Moscow subway, it follows that in 2012-2013. the company has ordered goods and services slightly more than 10 billion rubles. - Almost 17 times less than for new construction costs. Is it too little?

If you listen toEmployee underground, it seems that the money for the subway service is really lacking, and the company saves. Metropolitan is obliged to coordinate with the Department of Transport and the Moscow Property all deals worth over 5 mln., But even if they could not be approved Besedin for 5-6 months, so always had to plug the financial holes in operating costs, complains source GUPe. The thing is that Besedin failed to achieve the same status as its predecessor, and to communicate with the mayor directly, to communicate to it all had to "up" through Liksutova that lengthened the chain, says the source "Vedomosti".

In such circumstances, Besedina team tried to optimize costs, recognize employee subway and city hall official. One of the technical subway workers said that costs are reduced, for example by increasing the tolerance for the manufacture of parts (the difference with the reference size), and reducing the frequency of technical inspections compositions. First it possible to reduce production costs, and the second - on the staff, says the source, "the Vedasomostey ". Trains pass inspection every day objects Metro representative.

Nevertheless, several members of the underground complained that the management personnel in the subway is inflated, while technical workers becomes smaller.

"We have a catastrophic shortage of hands", - says Tatiana Silická Electrician surveillance Sokolniki and Zamoskvoretskaya lines. According to her, in 2012 the signaling and communications service has been transformed into two new services: Alarm service, centralization and blocking and communication service. Now in addition to the communication service chief of five deputies, and working directly with 2-3 appeared, she continues. To close the hole, sometimes people put on jobs with a minimum course of study, and safety is violated, says Silická. "For example, during maintenance work station control systems in the tunnel under the instruction to work together, but working alone," - she complains. Medical stations were previously at all metro stations, and now remain only in those where the machinists begin to work,- Is from two to four points on each line.

In Gaeva were six deputies, and now there are 12, earlier beat extra unit was very difficult, and at Besedin began to appear whole departments - including attracting private investment and development of commercial areas, gives an example of one of the employees. And in 2012, created the underground security service stated on the underground site. She instructed unusual features, says a source in GUPe: it must control the surrounding area, 50 m from the underground facilities, to prevent illegal trade. In addition, the Metro began working several private security companies - for their maintenance is spent on 400 million rubles. year, continues the source "Vedomosti".

When Besedin staff metro increased by approximately 20% to 44 000, while the share of steering and working positions did not change, safety is strictly observed, says the representative of the subway. He also claims that Gaeva had 10 deputies.

control Question

Manageability falls, and control of the workers and the fodryadchikami weakens, he said close to the subway people. PE has always been - and Gaevoy and Besedin, but worrying that their number is on the rise, says driver Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line and the chairman of the Independent Trade Union Valery Sobachkin subway workers.

Previously, each subway service was a group of technical supervision, which should monitor the work of contractors. "We now have in the group communication service is not", - says Silická. Supervision Groups in Metro services have objected to this representative Gupalo.

Often it turns out that the work in the subway sometimes there is no one to control, indicates the official Department of Transportation. This, according to the Investigative Committee, happened with turnouts failure which could cause a train crash on July 15. Among the four arrested in the case - two underground masters, their chief and director of production subcontractor of "Spetstehrekonstruktsiya".

"Vedomosti" contact "Spetstehrekonstruktsiey" failed. The database DATA"SPARK-Interfax" found only one active "Spetstehrekonstruktsiya" Ltd., registered in 2007 to address mass registration, telephone number does not answer. CEO and sole owner of the company Zinaida Bychkova - former owner and general director of OOO "PSF Spetstehrekonstruktsiya", which is also registered at the address of mass registration with a dead phone. The current CEO and owner of "Spetstehrekonstruktsiya PSF" Michael Teplinsky listed co-owner or the CEO of 60 Moscow companies. Another Ltd. "Spetstehrekonstruktsiya" was deleted from the register in December 2013 "Spetstehrekonstruktsiya" - the so-called adjacent to the company, in which employees subway, said Sobachkin work. The metro is believed that the responsibility for the subcontractor has to bear the general contractor - "Mosinzhstroi" too urban company, which acts as the customer and general contractor of the construction of the metro.

However, turnout fault - is not the only version of the tragedy. Sami offers small underground workers readyrevive a few others - the correspondent of "Vedomosti" heard the opinion that the collapse of the serious consequences due to the lack of cars in the design, and that's all about bad behavior of these cars. No official confirmation of these versions do not. The cars "Rusich", who walk on Arbat-Pokrovskaya line, meet the highest safety requirements, according to a representative of the manufacturer - factory "Metrovagonmash", included in "Transmashholding".

Older cars also derailed - in 2008, but then no one in the four derailed cars did not die, says the driver depot "Warsaw" Basil Shelyakov.

What conclusions can be

Sami Metro staff subway's problem list in the order of savings, lack of qualified personnel, the purchase of low-quality equipment, deterioration of the existing infrastructure with increasing passenger traffic. The intensity of the movement during peak hours has increased, says Sobachkin: if earlier on the line at this time there were a 36 pairs per hour, now & mdash; 40. The motion interval becomes smaller, and this leads to more intense wear and rails and cars, he explains. A large load on the infrastructure had already been the cause of emergency continues Sobachkin.

For example, there was a fire in the tunnel between the article last June. m. "Okhotny Ryad" and "Library them. Lenin ", in which about 4,500 people were evacuated from the subway, 28 were hospitalized. Burned power cable, which has not changed since the 30-ies. the last century, recognizes the source in the metro. On the busiest subway stations this year will change the cable on a modern, does not emit smoke when burning or gas, and does not allow fire to spread, promises Gupalo representative.

And on April 10-11 at the Serpukhov-Timiryazevskaya line there were interruptions in the movement. This was due to the launch of new rolling stock, whose energy consumption is 2 times higher than that of the old, that's underground mains and sboila not withstanding new capacity, previously told the deputy chairman of the Independent Trade Union of Metro Workers Nikolai Gostev. New formulations consume even less power, and SBIslit flow interruptions in those days was not observed object Metro representative.

Who will draw conclusions

Moscow Metro compared to other metro of the world looks good. For example, the failure of the London Underground - a common practice, says Khrapoun. "However, in our Metro lacks constructed job satisfaction analysis subway system, which is made on the basis of the strategic conclusions", - he added. Now, draw conclusions, and to raise the level of security in the subway to be its new chief - Dmitry Pegova, a native of Railways. He provided the launch of the first high-speed trains "Sapsan" between Moscow and St. Petersburg, the Allegro train between St. Petersburg and Helsinki and electric "Swallow", ie. E. Is familiar with the innovation and speed. However, the success of his work in the Moscow Metro will depend on whether he can become an independent figure and defend the interests of the subway, without taking on extra features, warns the mayor's office officials. His initial task Pegov already named full scan infrastruktury subway.