"No one is deceived" - as Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Kozak on the sidelines of the St. Petersburg Economic Forum, responded to the question of why the Olympic investors can not pay with the banks going bankrupt and why contractors Olympics. Officially the Winter Olympics in Sochi deemed successful, and even profitable. You can start to prepare for the World Cup - in 2018, which also take place in Russia.
Researchers have repeatedly come to the conclusion that major sporting events are not worth the money spent on them. However, this does not prevent governments again and again to fight for the right to recklessly expose his country to the test costs and giant construction projects, glowing terms, corrosive inspections FIFA and the IOC, the influx of hundreds of thousands of foreigners. Most stadiums in Russia must be submitted in the three years before the start of the Confederations Cup, that is, by 2017. According to the current assessment of the Economic Development Ministry, Russia will spend for 2018 of about $ 20 billion; according to the results, it may turn out much more. And fold growth estimates are not the only headache for the hosts. Championships never go smoothly.
1986 (as a result of the championship was held in Mexico)
Problems: the guerrilla war, drug cartels, hostage-taking
Colombia won the right to host the World Cup in 1986 in the 12 years before the event. Year vote in Zurich, 1974, the second was the last year of the presidency of Misael Pastrana Borrero of the Colombian Conservative Party. Pastrana Borrero was sure that if you deploy throughout the country large-scale construction of sports facilities and infrastructure, it will spur the economy. Therefore, he made every effort to lobby the Colombian application to FIFA.
National support rate Pastrana Borrero did not use. During his reign formed rebel "19 April Movement" (M-19), named after the April 19, 1970, when Pastrana Borrero won the election - as a result of fraud, as did members of the movement. M-19 was popular and conducted a variety of events, ranging from relatively innocent (the guerrillas stole a sword of the famous fighter for the independence of Latin America, Simon Bolivar) to the quite significant - in 1980 thDo Adventure M-19 captured the embassy of the Dominican Republic and two months held hostage by high-ranking officials. M-19 was the second-largest rebel group in Colombia after the Communist FARC, whose members in 1964, took refuge in the mountains and fought a guerrilla war. Whether at a time to soccer?
As long as the army and police fought with the guerrillas, numerous drug cartels gained strength, and a wave of killings and kidnappings.
Very fast growing public debt. The construction of stadiums and infrastructure are sorely delayed. Finally in 1982 President Belisario Betancur made a televised address: Colombia has the financial ability to take the championship. "We have a lot to do, and we have no time to please the whims of FIFA and its members," - said the president.
In 1983, just three years before the World Cup, the country which will take the championship, hastily appointed Mexico. Major sports facilities preserved from the previous World Cup, which took place there in 1970. In the eight months before the tournament was an earthquake in Mexicosenie, killing more than 10 000 people, but all the stadiums survived and took the championship.
Estimated public spending (estimated 2003): $ 308 million
Actual government spending: $ 5.1 billion
Stadiums: 5 new and 5 refurbished
Problems: strikes, murder, corruption
How many people are working on the construction of stadiums and infrastructure, when the country is preparing to take a major sporting event like the World Cup? In July 2009, South African President Jacob Zuma could give more or less precise answer to this question: a 70 000 construction workers involved in sports facilities, went on strike.
A crowd of thousands of people armed with sticks came out on the streets of Johannesburg, workers demanded to increase their salaries by 13%, otherwise threatened not to disperse until 2011, that is to disrupt the championship. By negotiating with the trade unions joined FIFA and Organizing Committee officials. A week later, the workers returned to their seats, having achieved a pay rise of 12%.
The strike was not the only problem of the African championship - Danger is seriousIt is represented by corruption in the distribution of money and construction contracts.
This was highlighted in the history of the construction of "Mbombela" stadium in the city of Nelspruit (Mbombela another name). A plot of land under the stadium area of 118 hectares of local authorities bought from farmers for 1 rand (about 10 cents). Residents protested, after the deal was challenged in the courts and the city had to pay 8.7 million rand (about $ 1 million).
In 2006, a contract for the construction of the "Mbombela" stadium was won by Lefica Emerging Equity, owned by the son of the founder of one of the biggest African football clubs 'Kaizer Chiefs' Bobby Mutanga and its partners. In 2008, the speaker of the local parliament accused the company of Jimmy Molela Mutanga forgery of documents necessary for the conclusion of the contract, and fraud. He tried to obtain termination of the contract with the company Mutanga. In January 2009, Molela shot in his own house.
Owners Lefica supported the local branch of the ruling party, the African National Congress, so the case against them filed only three years later, in 2012. Therochem, the court did not consider the evidence gathered by the investigating their guilt exhaustive and two years later Mutangi and his associates were released.
Estimated public spending: $ 3.6 billion
Actual government spending: $ 11.5 billion
Stadiums: 7 new and 5 refurbished
Challenges: the mass protests
No one expected that in Brazil, where soccer in popularity is far ahead of all other sports, tens of thousands of people take to the streets to protest against the World Cup - 2014. However, it was: the protesters made their way to the stadium, the police had to arrest activists and use tear gas. At the opening ceremony of the Confederations Cup in the summer of 2013 the President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff and FIFA President Sepp Blatter was booed by the audience.
Start 2014 World Cup coincided with a serious political crisis in Brazil.
In 2013, in the major cities on the street came out more than a million protesters. News about the growing budget championship coincided with the increase in fares on public transport - in Sao Paulo, naprime, A ticket for the metro and tram rose from 3 to 3.2 reals. That was enough to more than 100 000 inhabitants of São Paulo to protest against government policies.
Dilma Rousseff promised that all the money that the federal budget spent on the construction and renovation of stadiums for the championship, will return - at the expense of payments from private companies, which will be the stadium later own and operate. In Russia, no one promises to pay back the public investment. However, while there was no mass demonstrations demanding to summon officials to account.