Weeks journalist Forbes tried unsuccessfully to contact the owner of the network "Implosion" Grant Bezruchenko. In the night from Friday to Saturday, the phone rang. "This is the one you are looking for," - said a male voice. The caller was categorically opposed to the "implosion" called pharmacy chain. The conversation went short. Later, with the same numbers began to come sms with the swearing.
Was it himself Bezruchenko Grant? The turnover of its pharmaceutical business, comprising a network of 1,500 pharmacies, more than 20 billion rubles. In recognition of its competitors, the business model of "Implosion" and cleverly built structure is allowed to have the profitability of one and a half times higher than the market average. Including at the expense of tax optimization. Perhaps this is why the caller's response was so aggressive.
"Grant - explosive person. People who communicate with him for the first time, usually experience a shock ", - says Alexey Molchanov, ex-CEO of CV" Protek ", the distribution division of one of the largest pharmaceutical holdings.
A few years ago Bezruchenko suspectedand that he was sending obscene sms-messages Samara prosecutor, criminal proceedings were instituted.
Businessman argued that the sim-card, which comes with the message, he planted the attackers. Case closed then. Giving Forbes informative comments for this article Bezruchenko refused, as well as the "implosion" of top managers. Who is this Bezruchenko why he was so successful and so eccentric?
His professional career in 1985, 23-year-old graduate of the Polytechnic Institute of Samara Bezruchenko started a master at the local gunpowder factory and moved up the Komsomol. In 1990, he and his friends opened in his native Samara youth center, which was soon transformed into a trading firm, to sell furs, non-ferrous metals, computers, linoleum, roofing material ... business name Bezruchenko gave catchy - "Implosion" (from the English Implosion. , implosion). In 1992, an entrepreneur experienced his first collapse - due to a sharp jump in prices for non-ferrous metals company went bankrupt.
Attention Bezruchenko to drugs market attracted Nedavny student Dmitry Podgorny, who came to him through his brother. Now Podgornov - the junior partner in the group of companies "Implosion". In 1993, the pharmacy and hospital shelves warehouses were empty, drugs lacked. For example, at the same time founded the company "SIA International", one of the future leaders of the market, contracts were only two dozen drugs. "Implosion" was able to negotiate with several manufacturers, in particular with Natur Produkt - «daughter» German farmholdinga Naturwaren, the supply of medicines to pharmacies and hospitals Samara region. The Germans are just looking to enter the Russian market.
To better understand the new industry, Bezruchenko opened in the hometown of several test pharmacies.
"Pharmacies in which we have supplied medicines, no studies, and we need to understand what drugs are in demand and which are not. We went to the experiment, "- he explained in an interview Bezruchenko the Ekaterinburg magazine" Business Quarter ".
A year later, it became clear that the supply of controlled manually, "On paper", dreary and inefficient. Bezruchenko found experts who wrote for the "implosion" of the program to maintain customer base and manage the movement of goods. Bezruchenko pharmacy automation attended one of the first on the market. To always update it was not too lazy to hold a competition - best programmers have made the new Department of Information Technology, which later became a separate company "Implosion Soft". In addition to working at the parent company, she performed the orders to local industries.
In 1995, the "implosion" of the first among the Samara pharmaceutical distributors to cooperate with it connected the pharmacy to the electronic ordering system. This enabled the explosive growth of revenues from $ 3.6 million to $ 20 million in just two years. Ros and the market itself, the competition then was low. But automation has given the process speed.
The crisis of 1998 almost did not dare to the company from the earth. "Implosion" was a hostage to its own computer program procurement: the machine could not be unaware of the approaching collapse of the market and management found it necessary or UEoyalis intervene in time and to reduce the volume of purchases from foreign suppliers. Deputy Director General for Regional Distributor "Farm SKD" Artem Litvishkov recalls that "Implosion", in contrast to his company, specialized in import medicines, working with dozens of suppliers and was forced to pay for foreign currency contracts.
During the year "Implosion" turnover decreased twice, nothing was to pay with drug manufacturers. Bezruchenko Company, one of the largest distributors of the Volga region, began to besiege the federal players, "SIA International" and "leaked". "Distributors are so slowed down the prices that make them even lower than it was already impossible. Each of us went to the additional preferences for pharmacies who used it and Vili of us the ropes "- recalled co-owner of" Implosion "in an interview.
Bezruchenko reduced staff by 20%, and managers announced that the company began to develop its own retail, gradually abandoning the distribution. The basic principle of the network - Venupnye prices and discounts, so Bezruchenko called it "Discount system" Implosion ". Bezruchenko relied on those "test" pharmacy in Samara on which to probe the market and tested new methods of work. Completely abandon the distribution he did not - as he explained, "business district", "it is a structural unit retails for themselves and partners." The pharmacy Bezruchenko stand out from the crowd? According Litvishkova of "Farm SKD" biggest competitor "Implosion" in the Samara market while the company "Vita" made a bid to expand the range and quality, and the "implosion" - the number of points.
"Themselves chemists have been small and the daily range. They offer buyers low prices for the most important thing ", - says Litvishkov. Bezruchenko promote its ordering system and the discount program as a service to pharmacies, who became his partner. "They put the software in affiliate pharmacy and 100% of the goods delivered to the warehouse" Implosion ", see the revenue every day, and minimize their financial risks"- Said Alexander Kuzin, former Deputy Director General of "Rigla", now the head of the "RMI Partners" (controlled subsidiary Rusnano projects).
What is the result? After the departure of retail revenue for three years and each year has doubled in 2002 it amounted to about 800 million rubles. The number of own and partner pharmacies in the network exceeded one hundred: the opening of a pharmacy in a small town on the rented area then dispense 0.6-1.5 million rubles in terms of inventory. In the state there were more than 900 people.
Keep the defense
In 2005, "36.6" opened the first pharmacy in Samara - the competitors 'Implosion' came to the local market. Bezruchenko who first developed a network of money earned by the company, and bank loans, additional resources were needed. In order to withstand the onslaught of federal players in his native Volga region, the businessman began to buy up small local networks. In 2005, the Company issued promissory notes for 100 million rubles, and a year later - bonds for 300 million rubles. More than 80 million rubles "Implosion" spent on the purchase of Ufahildren "Habib" from 15 pharmacies, 63 million rubles - for controlling packet network pharmacies "Urban pharmaceutical warehouse" in Balakovo, 24.7 million rubles - on the Tatar "Delta".
Artem Litvishkov remembers who came to the region major players actually had no place. "The presence of" 36.6 "and other federal initially was ridiculous," Rigla "still hardly represented. "Implosion" and its younger rival "Vita" have already taken all the good places ", - he says. Network "36.6" recognized "implosion" one of the largest regional competitors in the investment memorandum before the release of the summer of 2006 the bonds of the year. In 2006, the company Bezruchenko becomes the third in the country in the number of points after the "Rigla", which is part of the holding "Protek" and "36.6" (in terms of sales "implosion" was the fourth). Business has grown so much that Grant Bezruchenko changed the structure of the company.
The analytical report of the Civil Code, "Region", prepared for the first bond issue "Implosion", states that "in order to minimize the legal and economic districtSkov group was divided into several legal entities, engaged in different activities, including those not related to the pharmacy business:. retail, wholesale, logistics, security and other activities All business processes and operational management carried out a single directorate. All Group companies have common shareholders. "
Since 2003, the main supplier for the entire retail network - LLC "Farmperspektiva" (now it is the largest by revenue of the entity all controlled Bezruchenko and its partners, the revenue for the year 2014 - more than 20 billion rubles). The shareholders of the wholesale division currently appear very Bezruchenko Grant (27.19%), his brother Valeri (24%), Dmitry Podgornov (27.19%) and Oleg Tepljakov (21.62%).
Medicines in pharmacies are supplied from its own distribution center - in 2006. "Implosion" built the first pharmaceutical warehouse in Samara area of 15 000 sq. m, which was then the largest in the Volga region. "None of the leaders - nor the" Rigla "nor" Doctor Stoletov "nor his logistics A5 not, - said Alexander Kuzin. & mdash; Only recently "36.6" chain acquired the business of the Finnish Oriola and will create their own logistics. "
In 2008, top managers and minority shareholders "Implosion" started to become founders and co-owners of a plurality LLC. Their names can be traced System: plant ( "Rosemary", "Plantain"), trees ( "Poplar", "Chestnut"), precious stones ( "Topaz," "Emerald"), and so on. According to the geomarketing service 'Vademecum-Navigator ", all of these legal entities operate pharmacies in the regions of" Implosion ". Why were these changes?
The fact that in January 2009 had come into force amendments to the Tax Code, which tightened the criteria for the application of the single tax on imputed income (UTII, 15% of imputed income). It was supposed to be used only organization able UTII, where he works no more than 100 employees, and the share of legal entities is less than 25% of their capital.
According to the Russian Association of Pharmacy Chains, UTII used nearly 80% of pharmacies, so the market and tookMenenius hostility. For pharmacies the entry into force of amendments postponed to 2011. Probably the "implosion" has decided to prepare for future changes in advance and optimize its structure. The share of legal entities in numerous OOO never exceeds 24%, and many firms are created only by individuals - those same minorities "Implosion", already the former.
"When the tax burden on pharmacy chains increased," Implosion "quickly divided into small companies, individual entrepreneurs, to mimic a small business, - says David Melik-Guseinov, director of the" Center for Social Economy ". - It is possible to reduce the tax burden, which would be higher, whether "Implosion" consolidated network ". This opinion is in conversation with Forbes hold five other market participants.
You could have such fragmentation be other reasons besides tax optimization? According to Nikolai Bespalov, Director of Development of the analytical company RNC Pharma, the existence of regional legal entities makes it easier to obtain licenses to open new pharmacies. "Simplificationare relationships with counterparts in the region, and in the case of claims by the Federal Antimonopoly Service to solve them easier, "- he adds.
The company "Rigla" and "36.6" did not want to answer questions about the "Implosion". "If" Rigla "was UTII, the margin would have been one and a half times higher," - said a source close to the network. Revenue "Rigla" was 24.2 billion rubles in 2014, net profit - 587.7 million rubles. According to rough calculations it turns out that, if the network is working on a "Implosion", it would have earned about 300 million rubles more. DSM Group estimates the total revenue "Implosion" of 22.6 billion rubles. Net profit network did not disclose. "I think that their margins higher than those of competitors by 30-40%", - said one industry analyst. Source of Forbes, close to the distributor "Protec", believes that without optimization "Implosion" will remain profitable and successful, "Tax tricks in the structure of their margin does not play such a significant role."
The partnership in crisis
In parallel with the transformation of business servicesBezruchenko sa continued to expand the network. In 2008, the "implosion" redeemed the debut bond issue and immediately announced the release of the next, already 1 billion (revenues of the retail division of the company amounted to 2.5 billion rubles in 2007). Money Bezruchenko going to invest in the expansion of the network: planned expansion into all areas of the Central, Urals and West Siberian regions. The issue was registered in the autumn, shortly before the crisis. A year after the release of Federal Financial Markets Service has recognized invalid.
The plan aggressive expansion on their own had to be revised. The company has ceased to open new pharmacies and closed six unprofitable outlets. Bet is placed on the development of the affiliate program. Potential partners carefully selected: managers "Implosion" conducted photo and video stores in different regions, assessed throughput, we studied balance counted risks.
"Implosion" The main condition for joint work were then centralized delivery of the goods from the warehouse. In addition, the company shared with its partners software and helped train staff. By dayIt was a franchise, do not provide for a lump-sum payment and royalties. "Implosion" earned on the wholesale margin, which varies from region to region. Pharmacies cooperation was beneficial - they took the goods on realization, not paying for inventory, but deducted daily dealer a certain percentage of sales (his mark).
"Implosion" came with a ready technology drugstore sales, all that was required by the head of affiliate pharmacy - a turn on the computer and follow the program, - remembers Litvishkov of "Farm SKD". - They have a lot of attention paid staff, dragged people from everywhere - from Penza, Ulyanovsk, in a training center. "
The system proved to be viable if the fall of 2008. "Implosion" united 526 drugstores, then a year later - 685 pharmacies, 40% of them - partnerships.
According to the "Vademecum-Navigator" at the beginning of 2015, participating in the discount system "Implosion" and procuring medicines from "Farmperspektivy" owns 82 pharmacies and 121 SP LLC. But to understand what the points are now managed by Mr.dependent partners "Implosion", and what - the company itself is problematic, many local networks operate under their own brands. According to the most rough estimates of market participants, the share of partner points today from 30% to 40%.
Antonina Druzhaeva, the owner of the pharmacy network "Vitalina" in Nizhny Novgorod region, of Forbes explains that "implosion" the company connects a regular supply agreement: "Nobody did not deprive me of the right to have relationships with other distributors, but to date," Implosion "offers the most acceptable conditions , low prices and a wide range. "Implosion" was by region, they are actively expanding, despite the crisis. I really appreciate the work that precedes the winning streak. I wanted to understand why they are so grown up. It was found many useful used primarily technology: all that was productive in the market, and they were. " With other partners, Forbes could not talk; they requested the parent company permission to talk to journalists and received a categorical refusal. "Everyone is afraid of them like the plague," - wrote Forbes one of the partners.
According to the RNC Pharma, for the second quarter of 2015. "The discount system" Implosion "united in 1535 pharmacies. Even if its owner is not willing to be called a network, for distributors and manufacturers of medicines, all these outlets appear a single entity - through consolidated procurement system. A few years ago, "Farmperspektiva" managed to enter into direct contracts with manufacturers. "Bears" works directly with major pharmaceutical companies, such as "Pharmstandard" and STADA.
"We are working with the" implosion "of about four years, they were one of the first pharmacies, with whom we have to cooperate directly, - says Ivan Glushkov, deputy general director of STADA CIS. - Now the volume of supply to them comparable to those that take most of the large regional distributors. It is appropriate and potentially a strong partner, who speaks to us in one language. " It tells Alex Kireev, head of sales department "Tsitomed", the first proposal for a partnership on the "Implosion » there were about three years ago. But to cooperate with the company in a pilot mode, the manufacturer started a month ago, before that with pharmacy chains "Tsitomed" did not work. "The contract we have signed only by the company's management of perseverance," - said Kireev.
"Implosion" provides manufacturers and even services to promote their goods. According Glushkov, in comparison with other networks in the promotion of investments in "Implosion" provide one of the best ratios of costs and results. What does a company in return? From cost margin disappears distributors. The average for the market, it is 5-7% - a major sum for multi-billion dollar "Implosion".
Network or not a network
In 2013, Grant ordered Bezruchenko its parent company "Farmperspektiva" in the Kaluga region. Perhaps the reason for the re-served as tax litigation: Interdistrict IFTS for major taxpayers of the Samara region suspect that the business structure "Implosion" allows it to underpay taxes in the budget, and a totalinspection assessed additional taxes and penalties the company at 206.8 million rubles.
What exactly figured out the tax? "The basis for this decision were the circumstances of the sale of products of" Farmperspektiva "in his address interdependent entities engaged in retail trade and applying special tax regimes - Forbes responded to a request to the management of the Federal Tax Service of the Samara region. - [Circumstances] show "fragmentation" of the business and getting in touch with this unjustified tax benefits on VAT, unified social tax and property tax. " Simply put, according to tax specialists, selling goods "Farmperspektivy" in affiliated points of sale, Bezruchenko shifted them from a large pocket in a few small and save on taxes. According to the tax authorities, only this Bezruchenko and shattered business.
"Explosive," the company went to challenge the tax authority's decision in court - lawsuits in various instances lasted until October, 2014. Lawyers "Implosion" managed to convince the judges that the wholesale and retail impersonateJelenia not depend on each other. Some retail firms were entitled to buy goods from other suppliers, all belonged to different natural persons, all have separate accounts. The court ruled in favor "Implosion", managed to repulse the attack.
But it is clearly not the last. In early 2015, after the "Farmperspektivy" victory in the courts, Industry Union of Professional Pharmaceutical Organizations drew the attention of the FAS and FTS on the problem of "fragmentation" of large networks. "We did not set out to derive someone on clean water or something to blame individual network pharmacy", - assured in the SPFO Forbes. Judging by the fighting spirit, Grant Bezruchenko ready to respond to new challenges.
Warrior of Light
Grant Bezruchenko prone to eccentric actions. One day he had quarreled with Samara businessman, President of the "Beach" Alexander Katya. Clearing of land for cottage village, Katin cut down 50 oak trees on the banks of the forest. At the coast it was moored floating jetty, half owned Bezruchenko. Pharmacist protested cutting of healthy trees and complained to the procture. In response Katin wrote a statement that the landing stage raised illegally. The Court ruled to remove the structure, but the litigation lasted several years.
At some point in the phones prosecutors began to come obscene SMS-messages with threats, signed "Warrior of Light", "The Last Samurai," "Captain Grant" and others. Recipients have opened a criminal case on the rare item "for threatening prosecutor in the performance of official duties. " Suspects held by him personally Grant Bezruchenko - during the searches at his home and "Implosion" offices found sim-card, which is sent to the SMS. Covladelets pharmacy of his guilt did not recognize the network, saying that the sim-card thrown. The investigation found no corpus delicti. Case closed.