"Construction of the century" is outdated standards. But this is only one of the problems that might mention the vice-premier.
March 19 Turkish cargo ship "Lira" demolished bearing under construction bridge between mainland Russia and the Crimea peninsula. The day before construction checked by President Vladimir Putin. "Arkady, come here, do not hide. If anything, we ask to you "- these words of the head of state called the shot a group photo on the background of the Strait of his old friend businessman Arkady Rotenberg. His company "Stroygazmontazh" (SGM), before nothing to build bridges not having no competition has received a contract for the construction of an important country for the crossing.
Who is to blame for the accident, the investigation will show. But eyewitness Captain Kerch ferry collision "Victory" Oleg Semenyuk said that the support of the bridge at the time of the accident were not highlighted. SGM RBC representative said that according to the rules of lighting poles should not be, and the working bridge (temporary construction is including the delivery of building materials to the construction site) at the time of the accident was designated Btional lighting on the fence-buoys.
Who and how reliably builds bridges in Russia and whether enough of these crossings to the biggest country in the world - in the RBC study.
How many bridges in Russia, and in what condition are they in?
"We need to ensure, in the full sense of the transport connectedness and unity of the entire Russian territory", - Putin said in his message to the Federal Assembly in December 2012. The president made a mistake in terminology: from road builders have the concept of "connectivity", and the largest country in the world with the "connection" is a problem.
The report of the Institute of Transport Economics and Transport Policy School of Economics compared the structure of the road network in different countries: Canada, China, Germany, the United States - a neat grid, transport links established between all states, provinces, Länder, in Russia - radial structure, the roads tend to Moscow which abut the stopper on the ring road, to solve the problem only began to reconstruct the Central ring road (Central ring road in the Moscow region). The current road scheme is almost identical to the network carriage roads of the Russian EmpireJokes director Mikhail Blinkin Institute.
Even more trouble than the road - this is the Russian bridges.
By the end of 2014, according to Rosstat (the latest available), there were 42 thousand bridges and overpasses in Russia -. Only 200 units more than in 2000. The length of the buildings during this period increased from 1.6 million linear meters to 2.1 million. The length of a road during the same period increased by 70% (mainly, however, due to the inclusion in the statistics of the local roads, which previously did not get there ). Only in 2009, former Minister of Transport Igor Levitin has promised the president finish bridges started in Soviet times.
Behind Russia and in the number of railway bridges. On Railways railways - 30.5 thousand bridges and viaducts with total length of 993 thousand running meters -.. Almost as many in number and twice less in length than on the roads in Russia. US railroads - 100 thousand bridges..
42 thousand bridges, or 72.5 thousand with the railway -.. A lot or a little for a country whose territory is 2.8 million proceeds of the rivers? Across the US runs 250 thousand rivers and bridges on them -. 600 thousand vmese.ie with the railway.
Official statistics of the lack of bridges in Russia does not exist, but indirectly it can be judged by two criteria. Firstly, according to the number of permanent crossings - summer and winter. . 257 summer and winter crossings 3.5 thousand - a very high figure even for such a large country (details at the end of 2014; for comparison, in the US, 485 ferry terminals according to the 2010 census).
Second, the lack of bridges can be judged in terms of transport rerun - the difference of the distance between points A and B on the ground and in the air. For example, in Moscow, a rerun is 70-80% against 20-25% in Western metropolitan areas, says deputy head of the center of expertise Probok.net Andrew Muhortikov. In Russia, adds Blinkin, there is no city with an indicator better than 50%. For example, to get from the regional center of the Arkhangelsk region to the main attractions of the region - the Solovetsky Islands (or more precisely, to the nearest town on the land - settlement Solovetsky) - it is necessary to travel by car around 1.2 thousand km detour through Karelia, straight away. there - 240 km (data public Serviand "Yandex").
About Russian rerun of the head of management Russian Industry and Trade Ministry of the Republic of Bashkortostan Iskander Makhmudov recalls this story: purchased by the state in 2014, the Japanese tomography went to the clinic six months, for which not only changed the exchange rate, but dry cooling liquid in the unit.
Every ninth bridge in Russia - a wooden one. Over the past 15 years, their total length was reduced by about 30%. Most of them in the Khabarovsk Territory - 706, or more than 60% of the total. In the Arkhangelsk region 66% of all bridges - wooden, in the Trans-Baikal Territory - 624 wooden bridge, almost half, in the Irkutsk region - 569, more than 40%.
However, wooden bridges does not mean bad: in some regions, it is cheap and is probably the only replacement of concrete bridge, which is likely, there will never be built. In what state of the majority of the capital of bridges in Russia?
The share of federal roads (they include and bridges), the relevant regulatory requirements, in 2015 was just over 60%, according to the latest data RoAvtodor. As stated in the conclusions of the international rating of Global Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum, Russia on the quality of roads occupies 123rd place out of 140, and is located between Sierra Leone and Benin.
There are statistics and separate bridges. Status only 20% of bridges in Russia in the early 2000s, the Ministry of Transport in its "Concept of improving bridges" assessed as "good". Another 18% of bridges at the time were in poor condition, the emergency was 1% of the buildings - a little more than 400. Now, Rosstat reports on more than 500 bridges in Russia, which is not safe for travel, but in 2013 their number increased by almost a hundred (though on the same concept, which wrote the Ministry of Transport, by 2005, "poor" bridges in Russia should not remain at all).
MOE since 1997 has recorded 26 cases of the collapse of road bridges (mainly due to collisions with heavy-bridge structures).
Only in 2016 and only four in the Maritime region collapsed bridge. One of them, in which local to collapse scratched "Obama - Loch", linked Vladivostok and Nakhodka.
Who is responsible for the Russian bridges?
The form of ownership classification of bridges generally coincides with the roads - there are federal bridges, regional and municipal. Federal Road Agency Ministry of Transport (Rosavtodor) owns about 5 thousand bridges, regional or municipal authorities -.. 34 thousand at the bridge, there are private owners - so, in the suburban Shchelkovo city bridge over the Klyazma River in 2001 was sold to the owner of the district Market 700 thous. rub., and is now in poor condition and does not operate. You can privatize the former departmental bridge and make a passage through it paid, in Irkutsk. Finally, there are abandoned bridges - so when audited in Crimea, found 10% of bridges, not standing on someone else's balance sheet, dilapidated and abandoned. In other regions of the country such examples are too short.
Construction and maintenance of bridges (like roads) - mainly in the budgets of different levels. On the balance of the Federal Road Agency - 50 thousand kilometers of roads -. 4% of their total length, their content in 2015 was allocated 220 billion rubles, the total budget of the Agency amounted to 530 billion py.. instead of the previously planned 574 billion rubles. In 2016, the agency reduced the budget by another 43 billion - a total of two years Rosavtodor lost 87 billion rubles. In the regions - 1.4 million km of roads, the total size of the regional road funds in 2015 (latest available data) - 445 billion rubles. The money - only 13% "of regulatory requirements for the maintenance and repair of the regional road network," according to estimates RADOR Association.
Strategic bridges also require the protection of costs. In the Ministry of Transport has its own departmental security management, but contracted with private security organizations. For example, Big Moskvoretsky bridge guarded by PSE "Krotum" and, judging by the contract documents, one of the security posts should be located very close to the place of the murder of Boris Nemtsov. The contract with the Chop has been concluded for this year.
The costs of the road sector in Russia is extremely small in comparison with other countries, when measured as a percentage of GDP. In Russia spends less than 2%, although the rate for countries with already developed road network - not less than 3%, says Blinkin. If we measure the value of infastrukturnyh assets as a percentage of GDP, Russia also is not among the leaders: 179% - in Japan, 76% - in China, 61% - in Russia.
The basic document that describes the situation of roads and bridges in Russia - it's Transport Strategy 2030, signed in 2008, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. Even according to this document due to "the lack of paved roads for more than 10% of the population, 15 million people in the spring and autumn periods are cut off from transport links"; . About 46.6 thousand settlements are not "due to transportation network of paved country by road"; "There is no support network of roads in the regions of the North, Siberia and Far East; more than 30% of the roads exist in overload mode.
Who builds bridges in Russia?
The Russian capitalists, a new application object of infinite riches - they started buying up companies engaged in the construction of bridges, wrote the Russian Forbes in 2006, analyzing the situation in the sector of infrastructure construction. Indeed, while the bridge-building business provided themselves with many: Marc O'Polo Investments Ltd Mikhailand Abyzova, then - Arkady Rotenberg, bought shares of "Mostotrest", AFK "Sistema" owned by Vladimir Yevtushenkov - share "Sibmost" SOK Group Yuri Kachmazova - action "Volgomost" and co-owners of "Transmashholding" Sergey Glinka and Maxim Liksutov and Michael structure Abyzova as writing "Vedomosti", acquired the shares "Dalmostostroy". bridge construction market in 2006 was estimated at $ 2 billion. The obvious was the fact that Russia needs roads and bridges, was a real boom in the market. It was a time of economic optimism, the mood was as follows: the volume of orders for sure will not decrease, says Mikhail Blinkin.
But since then much has changed.
According to SPARC, now in Russia - about 500 companies with a revenue volume of more than 50 million rubles, indicate field of activities, "the construction of bridges and tunnels.". In 2014, its total revenue amounted to 638 billion rubles, about 20% of the market -. It is only "Mostotrest", until 2015 controlled the father and son Rothenberg. In 2014, he earned 119 billion rubles. Also in the top five companies bridge builders - "UCSC Bridge" Ruslan BaiSarov, "Bridge Construction-11" Nicholas Russu, "Volgomost", the man who designed the highway Kerch - Simferopol, angered Vladimir Putin, and "Sibmost" Albert Koshkin.
Paradoxically, the top companies in the number of contracts for the construction of bridges, compiled by the Committee of Civil Initiatives (OIG), Alexei Kudrin, is completely different from the stamp revenue. Then in the top five - LLC "Mostpro", JSC "Spetsremproekt", "Geoproektstroy", LLC "YugGiproTrans", LLC "Project Story". The names of the companies and the names of the owners of the majority of readers do not say anything, the average amount of their contract - about 30 million rubles.
"We can hypothesize that if a company has a lot of small orders, it is likely to firm-builder and executes the order itself. And if she has one or two contracts, and giant, it is likely the company manager, who will recruit sub-builders "- explains Anna Sakoyan of OIG.
The median size of the contract with those companies that built bridges once had a greatThan the average value of the amounts of all bridge-building contracts that are taken for orders on a regular basis. For example, the cost of the contract "Stroygazmontazh" for design and construction of the bridge Kerch - 228 billion rubles. - A little less than the cost of all contracts Pacific bridge construction companies - 249.1 billion rubles.
Will the sanctions and the devaluation of the ruble on the state of bridge-builders? Yes, very much. In 2015, the construction of artificial structures on federal roads has fallen by more than two times compared to 2014 year, the 2016 budget does not allow to start new construction projects, even on federal roads, said the head of the Federal Road Agency Novel Starovoit. Even "Mostotrest", which the company Rotenberg "Stroygazmontazh" hired for the construction of the bridge Kerch, in 2015 recorded a drop in revenue of 5% in accordance with IFRS, and in the segment of the construction of bridges and roads - and at 12%.
Now, only 6-8% of the construction contractors feel "absolutely safely," the report says the HSE in a survey of 6.6 thousand heads of construction companies:. It "; Large structures with significant private funds, often monopoly on federal and regional markets have lobbyists that solve the problems associated with the new VIP-profitable orders ". They, says the HSE, receive large government orders "often unopposed."
But even the big players change their business model. Building bridges "Mostotrest" - now no more than one third of the entire portfolio. The same "Mostotrest" IC "Bridge", "Stroytransgaz" have begun to take on construction projects is not a federal scale -. No more than 5 billion rubles, the regional players - "Sibmost", "Volgomost", "Mostootryad number 19" - migrate toward more more modest, less than 1 billion rubles., projects, noted in 2015, KPMG experts.
"Now, the government orders, which appear on the market, you can close one of our own organization," - categorically said the deputy director of "Sibmost" Sergei Sokolov. "Order no. There is simply no "- echoes the general director of" UCSC Bridge "Victor Friesen.
Whywith the construction of bridges have problems?
Bridge - the most expensive part of the road. One kilometer of the usual single-lane road on the ground in the average price of 101.7 million rubles, the bridge -. 579 million rubles. (Calculated on the basis of the HSE Rosavtodor contracts concluded without regard to the training areas and VAT costs).
A lot or a little? Builders say that his proposed budget is insufficient. Pricing in the construction industry is engaged in the state, for the development and assessment of estimates corresponds to the Federal center of price formation in construction at the Ministry of Construction (now its former leader on trial for corruption case).
Cost estimate documentation based on the regulatory framework of 2001, the price level of 15-year-old, complains a representative of one of the largest contractors in the industry. Conversion to the current price is in accordance with the index system, the Ministry of Construction of regularly updated, he says, but rather averaged, the sectoral indices, calculated for road construction, simply does not exist. He echoed the managers and owners of construction and design toMpano polled by RBC. "The projects have gone into negative territory - said, for example, the deputy director of" Sibmost "Sokolov. - Amount of the contract does not correspond to reality. " According to him, projects with efficiency higher than 10% were always rare in the budgets of traditionally laid 8% savings.
KPMG determined the average size estimates discrepancies with reality: in the part of building materials 15%, directly works - 18-20%. In favor of the budget, rather than builders.
The role of geography
The costs for builders and increase the complexity of traditional Russian weather, distance and urbanization of the road network.
Distance and economic underdevelopment of areas reflected in the estimates for logistics. . For example, crushed stone for construction of a bridge across the river on the road Tangnary "Viluy" in Yakutia first almost 4 thousand km transported by rail from Kemerovo to Tommot station, then - the road to the object 459 km, the general director of "Transsahamosta" Vasiliy Mazur.
Urbanization implies that traditional roads are built h in RussiaErez settlements, which increases the costs for the builders to buy the land and transfer of communications.
The Russian bridge building totally dependent on imports. In the majority of positions in the industry import substitution is impossible, says a representative of one of the largest construction companies. For example, the guy to the bridge on the Russian island in Primorye, the foundation of the whole structure, designed and installed the French company Freyssinet. French guy and then painted in the Russian tricolor.
Manufacturing our own guys in Russia is practically no: only of "Redaelli CCM", part of "Severstal-metiz", making ropes for shrouds.
In the list of types of road-building equipment, the problem in terms of import substitution, compiled by the Federal Road Agency in 2015 - 23 positions, including all the basic: rollers, loaders, excavators, bulldozers.
What does Seagull
"It is what it is, it's inflation or something, we have this, what we talk about at all," - inquired at the State Council meeting on road construction in October 2014, Vladimir Putin, whomCommenting on the growth of 50% over the past five years on the rubble prices. During the three years prior to this meeting, Putin signed a decree on the sale of 75% owned by the Russian Railways First nonmetallic Company - association of 18 gravel plants. The contract went to NC "Berdyaush", co-owned, as a Forbes wrote a few months before the contest was the son of the Prosecutor General of Russia Igor Artem Seagull. Revenue NC "Berdyaush" has since grown to 900 million rubles. in 2010 to 1.9 billion in 2014.
No legal framework
Regions could find financing for their infrastructure projects in business, with the help of public-private partnership, PPP. But they can legally act as financial partners not only in a very capital-intensive projects, and bridges do not belong to them, says Director of PPP Development Center Maxim Tkachenko. The mechanism, when the region initiates PPP project and gets it money from the federal center, but worked out in the government, said Tkachenko.
Which bridges are still to be built?
Major polar city of Yamal - Salekhard and Labytnangi - in fact, one aglomeration, are on different banks of the Obi, with hills and in good weather, one can see the inhabitants of the other, many of these residents often work in neighboring cities. However, there is one problem - there is no bridge between the cities. In the summer ferry, in the cold working "winter road" on the ice, in the off-season - it all depends on the nature, may well be that having arrived in one city by train (in Labytnangi only station) or to another by plane (in Salekhard only airport), get into the city, the neighbor will not immediately. Bridge construction (and rail, and road) still planned under Joseph Stalin - but soon after the amnesty of 1953, when freedom came, "builders" trans-highway, venture left. The new Russian idea was revived in the form of the project "Northern latitudinal way", but in 2015 the president acknowledged that Russia's budget alone can not cope with the construction project.
Stories like this can tell the people of almost every Russian region, and the farther it is from the center of the region, the history is hopeless. Trains with the Trans-Siberian Railway and machines tAsse "Kolyma" many years can not be directly connected to Yakutsk due to lack of a bridge across the Lena - Now trail abuts the village of Nizhny Best. Residents of the Anadyr dream of a bridge that will connect the airport with the city. Other bridges seem to be starting to build, but no car or train them had still not passed. The bridge across the Amur River 2.2 km in length, the agreement on the construction of which half has been signed with China in 2008 - or rather, its Russian part, only 300 m - has not yet been built. Ready to only part of the Chinese - the Chinese are working in two shifts and has already built 17 piers and 16 spans, the Russian side promised to complete the construction in 2017.
Six-kilometer bridge over the Volga River in Ulyanovsk because of funding problems have built more than 20 years, from 1986 to 2009. In the period from 2000 to 2004, the second one span of the bridge was built. In 2004, Governor Vladimir Shamanov at a meeting with Vladimir Putin asked him for money. In 2005, it opened five spans. Unfinished called "Presidential Bridge."
The dream of all the regions - if the local bridge will be, for some reason, the object of federal interest.Fins Udmurtia had five years to spend on trying to convince the federal government to allocate 2.5 billion rubles. at first concession project in the field of bridge construction in Russia - the bridge across the Kama and Bui in Kambarsky District, which is 100 days a year remains cut off from the rest of the territory of the republic.
All current large building bridges Mikhail Blinkin calls "iventoorientirovannymi". To those at the RBC count can include bridges built in Vladivostok for the APEC summit, - they spent 63.5 billion, 46 bridges built on the road Adler - Krasnaya Polyana in Sochi for the Olympics: the entire route has cost 285 billion rubles. plus Kerch bridge for 228 billion rubles. -. The sum of all these buildings 576 billion rubles, more than the entire budget of the Federal Road Agency in 2015, and slightly less than the sum of the planned construction of 1.5 thousand km of Europe -. West China through Russia (about 783 billion rubles.).
Kerch bridge - about 70% of the total budget for the rest of the Federal Road Agency building in 2016. This is one of the few articles Office expenses, which were not cut, along with the development of "Plato" system,which serves the company Igor Rotenberg, his son Arkady, Kerch ferry builder. Other buildings Rosavtodor this year will not start. Spent including the money planned for the construction of the first bridge across the Lena River in Yakutia - the same one on which the train and the car can travel to Yakutsk, bypassing the crossing.
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In 2007, the Vologda Region Parliament adopted a resolution on the construction of 14 million rubles. Bridge and road to the village of dying Mitnica, where if two people live.
Why this project region? The then governor of Vologda, is now a State Duma deputy Vyacheslav Pozgalev says that it is necessary to establish transport links and sparsely populated places, "Yes, lived there, in my opinion, almost one grandmother. So what? How would it traveled, for example, an ambulance? "
But there is another explanation. The plot in the village shortly before the construction of the road was the director Nikita Mikhalkov. Judging from the Unified State Register, in full namesake of the director does have owned several plots in Mezhdurechensk area of Vologda region (there is Mitnica).There, on Mikhalkov Nikita Sergeyevich registered and hunting organization "Temin-North". Get a comment from him failed - the director was busy all the time.