In mid-March, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev announced that the procedure for granting state subsidies for projects in the machine tool is simplified. If before government funding was to give a third of the budget of the project and the recipient enterprises need to draw the remaining two thirds of the investment, but now the budget is ready to finance two-thirds of machine tool design. And if in the past year to support engineering allocated 1.5 billion rubles in present -. 2.7 billion rubles.
It only remains to add that the recipients of these subsidies - state corporation enterprise "Rostec".
On this corporation has to recently hear more - it promises to provide all Russians drugs, then recycle all the garbage in the country, to start doing domestic smartphones. And every time her projects are accompanied by a claim to receive state support.
As the head of sales management strategies Dukascopy Bank SA Daniel Egorov, the lion's share of all the ministry's orders executes it "Rostec", he - one of the first in line to gov'tarstvennye subsidies.
"A very popular view that" Rostec "receives significant preferences in respect of subsidies, since investing in the development of unique European and American high-tech products, - said the expert. - It is true that among the sold "Rostec" projects, none is not proved commercially successful. Also notable favor of FAS to acquisitions "Rostec", in particular - with regard to telecommunication and high-tech companies (for example, the recent acquisition of a block package "Union Card" and open transfer of all banks serving daughter "Rostec" on its processing platform that The FAS in principle should not approve. "
"Rostec" has long been turned into a huge, diverse and bureaucratic conglomerate, under the wing of which about 700 enterprises, united around a dozen holdings. Here is everything - from weapons production to cryptography and by helicopter to the pharmacy. The number of "Rostec" workers approaching 500,000 people, constituting revenueis about 1 trillion rubles.
According to the expert of the Center of scientific thought and political ideology (Sulakshina Center) Lyudmila Kravchenko, gigantism is the hallmark of our government, and the desire for monopoly derives not so much from the economy, much of the policy approaches. Daniel Egorov also notes that the unique Russian state corporations in developed countries do not have. However, the West has nationalized large structure, but abroad causal relationship is different: first, the corporation has developed as a joint stock company, and then, during the crisis, it was saved from the collapse of the state. In Russia, the authorities have constructed literally "Rostec" of various state enterprises.
The birth of a giant
It all started with the fact that in the late 1990s, Sergei Chemezov, who comes from the nuclear industry, who knew Vladimir Putin is still at work in East Germany, and then to work in the presidential administration, headed "Promeksport" - company that would sell overseas arms, is released while reducing the army. Deputy Chemezov was Andrei Belyaminov, last timeedchik, an employee of the Soviet Embassy in the GDR, and is also familiar to Vladimir Putin.
Next to "Promekspertom" there was a big competitor - the company "Rosvoruzhenie" exporting products of military industry. In 2000, "Rosvoruzhenie" and "Promeksport" united under the brand name "Rosoboronexport", and led holding Belyaminov, and Sergei Chemezov became his deputy - the chief and the deputy are reversed. Three years later Belyaminov headed by the Federal Service for Defense Contracts, and Sergey Chemezov, General Director of FSUE became, exclusively exporting weapons.
History "Rostec" should lead it to the education of "Rosoboronexport", since this structure is immediately did not want to be limited to trade and has gained a foothold in the industry. At the beginning of the zero under "Rosoboronexport" emerged "daughter" - "Oboronprom", which started pilot. And when export FSUE headed Chemezov, he launched a massive campaign to acquisitions of production assets.
About a year after administrationChemezov arms exporter makes capturing civilian enterprise completely - "AvtoVAZ". Old management associated with criminal gangs, have changed with the help of law enforcement officers; to convince the old team to leave, at the end of 2005 in Togliatti arrived group of investigators and prosecutors, and the three chief accountants of "AvtoVAZ" was charged with embezzlement and tax evasion.
At the same time, "Rosoboronexport" began to be implemented in the steel industry and has captured the world's largest titanium producer - "VSMPO-Avisma". For this, too, used the security forces. The company appeared Tax Service inspectors, it was tax claims almost 2.5 billion rubles., But against relative enterprise Vyacheslav Bresht main owner brought a criminal case, after which Bresht quickly decided to sell its stake and leave the country.
And export structure Chemezov tried to create a monopoly in the market of special steels, which would have established holding "Russpetsstal", which became the basis of the Volgograd Steel Works "Red Onber "- holding company formed to a large extent on borrowed funds borrowed from banks.
Perhaps, "Rosoboronexport" would have had to capture the enterprise one, if at the beginning of zero government did not start the reform of the military-industrial complex (MIC). In 2002, under the leadership of the then curator of the CMO, Deputy Prime Minister Ilya Klebanov, it was a plan, according to which the military enterprises expected until 2010 drained about two dozen holdings. And "Rosoboronexport" in 2005 offered himself as a structure, which should lead this process and become a common roof for the military-industrial holdings.
In the bowels of the government in this project were the opponents. Of the planned to the creation of state corporations - "Development Bank - VEB", "Nanotechnologies", "Rosatom" - the decision of the "Russian Technologies" was taken last. Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin wrote that the transfer of the assets of one corporation - is not nothing but a hidden privatization, which is "aimed at the withdrawal to themoves from the sale of state assets from the federal budget. " Nevertheless, the law of the state corporation "Russian Technologies" (later "Rostec") was adopted in 2007, and Sergey Chemezov, said that "the objections were not because of any fundamental disagreement with the ministries and departments, but because of misunderstanding . Now we have met with representatives of these institutions, answered all the questions and all agreed. "
Since then, more and more businesses are transferred "Rostec" almost continuously. The Federal Property Management Agency "Co." reported that there were two presidential decrees - one from 2008 and the second by 2015 - in line with that of GC "Rostec" 310 AD and 186 federal state unitary enterprises were transferred.
The assets, which Chemezov acquired prior to the official establishment of "Russian Technologies", it turned out to be too tough.
Metallurgical Works "Red October" was burdened with debts, and during the 2008-2009 financial crisis years. "Russpetsstal" went bankrupt, and the "Red October" came under the control of "Uralvagonzavod".
To establish a competitive production at "AvtoVAZ" « Rostec "was not able to, and in 2014 control of the car factory moved to the Renault-Nissan alliance.
Control of the titanium producer, "VSMPO-AVISMA" in 2012 for unclear reasons, was handed over to a group of top managers of the company titanium. Chemezov said that the deal was for "Rostec" reasonable, the press wrote that "Rostec" plans to dispose of non-core assets, but the latter turned out to be far from the truth, since, on the contrary, "Rostec" fit in more and more industries.
Gunsmiths in civilian
Basis "Rostec" - military industry. Since the state defense order has grown in recent years, for the welfare of the members of the "Rostec" business is you can not be afraid. Reporting for 2015 yet, but with respect to 2014 Corporation reported that it performed its factories of the state defense order increased by 60%.
If "Rostec" remained exclusively defense-industrial structure, its existence would cause fewer questions. However, the corporation makes strenuous efforts to take root and in other industries. As the Executive Director of Supplies andka technological equipment of "Stark" Sergei Dziubenko, although the corporation "Rostec" shows steady growth in revenue and profit over the past few years, but "participation in non-core projects - the pharmaceutical industry, the development of Udokan - rather, raises questions on the feasibility of their implementation under exactly "Rostec".
Sergei Chemezov, said proudly that the share of civil production of the state corporation on the basis of 2014 increased from 28% to 30%. However, "Rostec" dream is not about fair market competition. For example, on the website of the corporation has a section "Top 5" Rostec "projects, where it is clear that its civil products also created for the state order - the equipment for the study of the Sun and the spacecraft.
The indignation of ecologists call attempts "Rostec" ride the waste treatment sector. "RT-Invest" Company ( "daughter" of "Rostec") plans to build about 11 incinerators, however, as noted in the "Green Peace", to its businesses were profitable, state-owned corporation is lobbying a bill allowings to increase electricity tariffs, due to which it is planned to raise up to 40 billion rubles. in year. As noted in a letter to the head of "Community energy consumers," Vasily Kiselev Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich, the annual support of 700 MW of electricity produced from waste incineration plants "Rostec" will cost customers in the same amount as the 4.8 GW of new nuclear power plants or 30 GW conventional thermal power plants. In addition, in areas where the plants will be built, will increase threefold fee for the disposal of waste and introduce an environmental fee for its processing.
A particularly unpleasant impression on the population makes an attempt to take advantage of the industrial giant of import substitution policy in the sphere of production of medications, because there's not a minor quality of the nuances may be critical to your health. Reputation in the domestic pharmaceutical industry is not the highest, but "Rostec" would first like to deliver medications for the public procurement system that is out of the market and free competition with foreign analogs. For introduction to the market of drugs and medicaltechnology "Rostec" was specially created JSC "National Company immunobiologicheskaja" ( "Natsimbio").
The Ministry of Health and its director Veronika Skvortsova obviously play up Sergey Chemezov.
In 2014, Chemezov Skvortsova and appealed to President Putin with a proposal to organize the entire production of drugs for the vaccination on the basis of "Microgen" NGO (included in "Rostec"). A year later, in 2015, the Ministry of Health proposed the government a draft order, according to which "Natsimbio" becomes the sole supplier of medicines to the national immunization schedule. It is worth mentioning that the purchase of vaccines in 2015. The Ministry of Health has allocated 10 billion rubles., And the total amount of public procurement of medicines included in the list of essential, more than 150 billion rubles. Sergei Chemezov, announced that he intends to control 25% of the procurement market and 8% of the total pharmaceutical market.
Curiously, the "Natsimbio" implements its programs through investments in a number of projects, co-investors and participants of which are close to the power of the people (see. Material "healthy interest").
"Hardly cana positive impact on the establishment of the market giant, based on the state order and the state capital, - he says researcher of the International Laboratory of economics, management and policy in the field of health the HSE - St. Petersburg Vladislav Plotnikov. - But it may affect the achievement of the objectives of formation of innovative activity of the pharmaceutical industry, as well as help to make up for the drawbacks associated with the production of domestic substances ".
The symbol of the effort "Rostec" on production is not for public procurement and for the mass consumer became YotaPhone, which Chemezov in 2013 solemnly presented to Dmitry Medvedev. However, the company-manufacturer Yota Devices «Rostec" had only a blocking stake and controlling interest belonged to the first Sergey Adonevu Avdolyanu and Alberta, and now the Chinese holding Rex Global.
On the domestic smartphone had the unequivocal opinion: it is too expensive to become popular. "The problem is that the domestic smart phone market is not needed - no one will pay for it the tsewell, for which it will be sold, - said the head of the company "Formlab" Andrew Vostrikovs. - For the low price may be only in two cases - subsidies or large print runs. The first is understandable, but it is unlikely, and the second in general is incredible, since the circulation are obtained when there is a demand and no competition. " At the end of last year the company GfK said that the Russian market is not sold over 300 YotaPhone month. Reporting Russian manufacturer of smart phones for 2015 is not published yet, but the total debt Yota Devices has increased from $ 24.3 million in 2013 to $ 65.2 million at the end of 2014 net loss of the manufacturer of smartphones in the same period rose from $ 19.9 million to $ 42.3 million.
However, now the "daughter" of "Rostec" holding "Electronics", will release an alternative YotaPhone - a domestic budget smartphone - and, of course, hopes of the sales achieved by the state order.
"First you want to define clearly who and why you need it, - said the executive director of" biplane "Eugene Karyuk. - If the main task - imbued with patriotismcreate your product, it is sufficient to recall the low popularity YotaPhone. The creation of such a smartphone will cost, at very minimal estimates, approximately $ 50 million, and its return will depend on consumers' confidence in the domestic manufacturer. Of course, the idea is correct and obviously dictated by the policy of import substitution, but there are no real-world experience is more like a very risky and expensive experiment. "
The chief editor of the portal AppTractor.ru Leonid Bogolyubov sure what to make of the domestic mobile phone accessories will be almost impossible - processor, screen, memory, will have to produce from scratch, that is, the cost of construction of factories for their production will be incorporated in the price. "In addition, it is clear that as long as we establish the release of three years, the competitors will be working on new products, and three years later we again find ourselves in the role of catch-up, - the expert believes. - If so it would be desirable to have a domestic competitive devices, it is necessary to begin with a good foundation - creating a modern scientific bases and factories for the production of the elements. It may take five years beforeinfinity. "
Cadres decide everything
Because "Rostec" an enormous responsibility for the prosperity of a wide variety of sectors of the Russian economy, the crucial importance of its personnel policy. It would be logical to expect that the group will stand at the head of the managers who have experience in various industrial corporations, and it is desirable - the market and perhaps even foreign - to bring our state industry best corporate standards. But nepotism this does not help. "So holdings need skilled and high-quality managers, and when you put the individual at the company, whose advantage is that you are personally familiar with it at work, it greatly reduces the potential for the development of such holdings," - says Lyudmila Kravchenko.
Meanwhile, Sergei Chemezov himself made a career due to his long acquaintance with the current head of state. The second person in the corporation and the first deputy Vladimir Chemezov is Artjakov - his friend since the early 1990s. When Vladimir Putin in 1996, came to control deLamy president, direct the work of a foreign property was Sergei Chemezov, and he also brought with him Vladimir Artyakov, although the latter has received correspondence education in civil engineering and was not the most senior official Glavmosstroy.
Countryman and friend of youth Sergey Chemezov Vitaly Maschitsky became chairman of the board of directors "Natsimbio". "As for the problem of administrative resources at the state order, you can not help but recall the history associated with the Chairman of the Board of Directors' Natsimbio" Maschitskim Vitali, who is also the owner of the pharmaceutical company "Bioran" - says the lawyer of the Moscow Bar Association "and Barschevsky partners ", Shamil Shihshaidov. - That is Maschitsky in the process of development of the domestic drugs market will participate in two qualities - the head of the pharmaceutical "daughter" "Rostec" "Natsimbio" (supported by the state) and the main owner of the pharmaceutical company "Bioran", which should become a major producer of insulin in the country " .
But Executive DirKtorov "Rostec," the former officer Sergei Kulikov, has experience only in "Promeksport" system and "Rosoboronexport".
And, of course, around the top managers of state corporations have grown their businesses relatives. Chemezov's wife Ekaterina Ignatova owns 70% of "Kate" - companies for the development and production of automatic transmissions, supplied to "AvtoVAZ". She is also credited with participation in the gas company "Itera", where he was the son of Sergei Chemezov, Stanislav. In Stanislaus Chemezov extensive business interests, including intersecting "Rostec" activities. He was a member of the board of directors "AvtoVAZenergo" was linked to "the Independent Insurance Company", "Rostec" to insure the company.
"Rostec" too big and diverse to have a uniform personnel policy, - says partner Artisan Group Public Relations Alexander Filimonov. - Well it is that the majority of top managers "daughters" "Rostec" - either former or existing businesses that retain their stake in the business and consequently haveknowledge of "how to develop, not to lose." The bad news is that the present confusion and vacillation, and that unconcealed personal ambitions of some of them does not decrease with time, but on the contrary, only increase. For example, the desire to "Rostec" seize the aviation assets is clear - the state corporation focus is entirely justified. However, instead of buying loss-making operators (for example, "Transaero") top management somehow constantly fighting for the accession of "Aeroflot", knowing full well that this is a potential conflict of interests of the state. "
"So far we can say only that the policy of" Rostec "in relation to staff more than conservative - any replacement of the head of the holding is held in many stages, and the Board of Directors decision - a mere formality - said Daniel Egorov. - At least for the last three years that the board of directors of any of the "daughters" "Rostec" rejected one or another candidate, no one had heard. "
Where is "Rostec"
Now "Rostec" adopted its new pageAmer to 2025, in which he called their global competitors, among them - General Electric and Samsung, which have to catch up on key financial indicators. But for this the state corporation must be an annual increase in revenue, three times faster than the growth of Russia's GDP. And with an annual increase at the rate of growth of the Russian GDP revenue "Rostec" in 2035 will be about 4 trillion rubles., Which is seven times lower than the time predicted for the same GE Corporation. And it is obvious that "Rostec" must cease to depend on the state order, but its ability to achieve spectacular success in the free market is questionable.
Gregory Burlutskiy, portfolio manager of LLC "MC" Custom Capital ", believes that" Rostec "strategy most questions cause the items that are associated with the plans to provide financing themselves by optimizing revenue and costs, as well as by attracting outside investment. "Recall that the" Rostec "appeared in the list of Russian companies, which have been imposed most severe Western sanctions, severely limiting access to foreign marketsapitala - like an expert. - It is obvious that involve third-party investment in the conditions of existing sanctions would be extremely difficult, and in these circumstances, the state corporation to manage without the help of the state and the budget, the big question. "
According to the analyst of the National Rating Agency Kirill Kukushkin, based on the current performance is difficult to name Samsung, GE, Siemens and Boeing global competitors "Rostec". No financial terms or in brand awareness of serious competition is now can be no question. While "Rostec" is able to claim the title of a regional player in the CIS market and compete in the priority markets for the corporation in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
"The plans to diversify its business and the growth of large-scale, but everything depends on their implementation (many owners YotaPhone Do you know?) And funding from the government to get that in these conditions, with the problems of the state budget is quite problematic," - sums up Kirill Kukushkin.
Alexander Filimonov sure that the state corporation as a phenomenon of Russian progosudarsvennogo business has outlived his own. "They were created to weaken the oligarchic structures and for more control over the business of the state, and the task they successfully carried out, - the expert says. - Now they have become the locomotive of the power in the stone, pulling her to the bottom, so the expansion of one of the state-owned corporations, and, moreover, transfer it to the management of new assets, I seem a little strange. In addition, the larger the corporation, the lower the level of management and control of financial performance. If "Rostec" able to cope with this burden - will be satisfied more than offended. If you can not - several industrial clusters from government control will arise as a house of cards. "