Aman Tuleyev for 20 years of leadership in the Kemerovo region built a system of governance of the region, which guaranteed stability and high indicators of power in elections. Mr. Tuleyev's epoch ended with a fire in the shopping center "Winter Cherry" and a many-thousand meeting demanding his resignation. The construction of a new model of relations between government, business and society will have to be done by the governor Sergey Tsivilev.
"You controlled the state, and Kuzbass is a state," their speaker encourages deputies of the Kemerovo regional council, and more recently Governor Aman Tuleyev. This is the last session of the current "Tuleian convocation" of the parliament. In September, the election of the governor and the regional council, of the acting United Russia deputies, only six run for it. Aman Tuleyev is not nominated either. The state in the state begins to collapse, and its founder and leader already have an extra figure in it.
After the "Winter Cherry"
"Here, in this square, there were thousands of people after the" Winter Cherry ", - the vice-governor Sergei Tsivilev looks at the window of the regional administration. The fire, which killed 60 people (among them 41 children), completely unfolded the history of the region. Mr. Tsivilev was just beginning to work as an industrial deputy governor, and before that he was running the Kolmar coal company. It was assumed that he would lead the region by 2019 and "calmly go to the polls", several sources of Kommersant close to the leadership of United Russia say. "The" winter cherry "was simply not given to anyone. She changed not only me, she changed everyone. And everyone who is in the Kuzbass, and all who are in the country, and many abroad. Plans literally changed for one day. After the "Winter Cherry", another story of relations with the Kuzbass began, "- says Sergei Tsivilev.
The shopping center caught fire on March 25, on March 27 several thousand people came to the main square of Kemerovo, who demanded to tell them the truth about the victims and send Aman Tuleyev to resign. Sergei Tsivilev and deputy governor Vladimir Chernov came to the protesters. For Mr. Tsivilev, the meeting was not easy. First, he accused one of the activists Igor Vostrikov, who died in a fire family, in that he came "piaritsya on blood," and then knelt before the crowd. "Probably, for a politician and an official this can be considered a weak step, but in a human way it causes respect," believes ex-deputy of the Legislative Assembly Peter Fink. Sergei Tsivilev himself says that the residents of Kuzbass "very much expect changes, they are set on these changes". Aman Tuleyev built an integral model in the region, which can only be completely changed. "Everything, another time has begun," said Mr. Tsivilev resolutely.
Theater of one actor
The features of the model are directly apparent at the last session of the Regional Council. Aman Tuleyev clearly wants to stop the moment and prolong the meeting: he tries to organize a discussion, encourages deputies to ask questions. Efforts are in vain - the deputies diligently vote, but they did not know how to argue or disagree. The session turned into a one-man show. Aman Tuleyev tortured officials about the aims of the bills, constantly reminded that everything good in the region was already envisaged, was started up in memories. He urged the deputies to think: it is good or bad to hire people without experience in the control and accounting chamber of the region (this is required by changes in federal legislation). "Maybe it's not good, but this is the task of the president - it is necessary to execute," Oleg Shurygin, deputy finance minister, answered artlessly. In this law the region lived for about 20 years, Aman Tuleyev himself was not entrusted with doubts.
Most of the seats in the Legislative Assembly are occupied by state employees, out of 42 deputies, 40 are United Russia, one is in the "Just Russia", one is with the LDPR. "Tuleyev began to hold state employees in parliament before the authorities began to practice it in other regions. In addition, they form the majority. He was at the head of the list, and they chose Tuleyev's team. These people were not politicians, they were completely manageable and obediently voted, "- explains the source of" Kommersant "in the federal" United Russia ". According to the head of the regional branch of the party, the former speaker of the regional council, and now. about. vice-governor Alexei Sinitsyn, the lists at the elections were "vertically integrated and did not differ from the specific territory", hence their composition.
The policy in the region was based on the name of the governor. And in Kemerovo, and in Novokuznetsk (the second largest city in the region), buses and trams are still riding along the streets with best wishes to the residents. Earlier the author had citations - Aman Tuleyev, but now the abstract "governor of the Kemerovo region" wants "Kemerovo transport" "health and good luck to fellow countrymen", now there is no author's wishes in Novokuznetsk. On behalf of the governor, people received gifts, social programs were named in his honor. "The whole" policy "was based on the advice of veterans, who Tuleyev financially supported. Significant mobilization went through them, "- says the source" Kommersant "in the party of power. A former regional administration official states that "the results of the election were programmed, and the real results - no one will call you". In the governor's election in 2015, with a turnout of 92%, Aman Tuleyev scored 96.69% of the vote. Ramzan Kadyrov was the only one among the heads of regions. Alexei Sinitsyn rejects the claim: "Tuleev paid a lot of time to the elections. On the sites were holidays, trade, it was possible to get a reception from narrow medical specialists. Everything was elegant, music sounded. People came! "The head of the Open City Foundation, ONF activist Maxim Uchvatov said that when in the 2015 elections" he was drawn 96%, it became clear to everyone that he had completely lost relevance and connection with reality. "
In 1997, Governor Aman Tuleyev won 94% of the vote. That figure did not cause doubts. "Then he came in a wave of anti-Yeltsin sentiments," recalls Pyotr Fink. "There is a saying:" Chikhnet Kuzbass - the whole of Russia has a cold ". Tuleyev loves her and always used the situation. Miner's protests were known throughout Russia, but very few people know that the same overlapping of railroads was organized by Tuleyev's people, "Mr. Finck asserts. He was an adherent of the ex-governor Mikhail Kislyuk, with whom the speaker of the regional council Aman Tuleyev in the early 1990s toughly clashed. In the 1994 elections, the Tuleyev bloc "People's Power" received 63%, while the single-member Fink was in opposition to Mr. Tuleyev.
Disadvantaged people could become and former comrades-in-arms. This happened with the former head of the regional committee of the Communist Party Nina Ostanina, who, choosing between the party and Aman Tuleyev, took the side of the Communist Party. Mr. Tuleev considered this a personal betrayal. United Russia Sergei Neverov, the head of the region suspected of wanting to occupy his chair. "Neverov does not support the coal industry of the Kuzbass, he was twice elected from the Kuzbass to the Duma. And where are the legislative initiatives? And it was not I who said that the United Russia party said: Mr. Neverov, you walk, you did not fulfill your obligations to the miners, "said Aman Tuleyev in 2007. Sergei Neverov had to be elected from the Altai Territory. In 2003, the director of the "Kuzbassrazrezugl" Anatoly Pristavka planned to nominate himself to the Duma. "Someone told Tuleyev that the Prefix wants to lead the region. He instantly became an enemy, he was criticized by the media, the man was forced to leave the region, and later he was deprived of all awards, "says Peter Fink. The enemies of the governor "either rolled out the siloviki and the media, or sent to Moscow for promotion, so as not to interfere", says Maxim Uchvatov.
Over the years, the tribune of the people, Aman Tuleyev, began to lose his senses and to move away from the people. In 2010, after the explosion at the mine "Raspadskaya", where 91 people were killed, the miners blocked the railway tracks, demanding better working conditions. The governor announced that the road was blocked by "criminal elements". After the fire in the Winter Cherry, Mr. Tuleev told Vladimir Putin that "buzoters" had gathered in the square, and not relatives of the deceased. "Aman Tuleyev decided, with the best of intentions, to greet the people with the tuples of the cortege. People thought that they were being frightened off, "a source at the Legislative Assembly said.
In favor of the poor
Tuleev's system of social support was built since 1997: the needy received small social payments, the miners were awarded local orders and medals. Blazing throughout the 1990s, the Kuzbass gradually turned into one of the most stable regions of Russia. "The miners protested, organized working committees, but in many respects they needed the former respect, concern for the authorities. The distribution system, the system of awards, and not just a more or less stable life. Tuleyev returned it, "argues political analyst Alexei Makarkin. Now additional payments are received by pensioners who turned 70 years old, wives of servicemen, families in which children appear. Older people get sticks for Nordic walking, children from low-income families - bicycles and attire at the prom.
"Before, support was felt, but now somehow not very", - sighs the former Novokuznetsk miner Vasily. Maxim Uchvatov points out that the monthly surcharge for pensioners is 1 thousand rubles. "In a day it's 30 rubles, a loaf of bread, well, where's the tangible support?" He resents, admitting, however, that for someone and such a sum is a gift. Vasily receives a little more than 13 thousand rubles. "And I received about 9 thousand rubles altogether. first ", - the miner admits. Now he earns extra money and does not particularly hope for help from the state. But, he said, many people, especially the elderly, take this help with pleasure, and this is one of the secrets of Aman Tuleyev's popularity. "His grandmothers support him, they speak positively, but Tuleyev criticizes young people," confirms Sergei from the village of Baidayevka.
Igor Vostrikov Tuleev's system of power in the region is sharply criticized. "As it was? As the father said, so be it, other initiatives were poorly regarded. Tuleyev followed the trends closely: if the federal government has introduced a Far Eastern hectare, it means that the land should be distributed to us, and not a hectare, but two and a half! "- recalls Mr. Vostrikov. According to him, the idea was a failure: "the land was provided in remote northern regions and without infrastructure, people might want to move, but they did not have the funds for infrastructure." He considers the whole system of social support ineffective. "Some privileges and crumbs are given, but textbooks in schools are actually paid," he says with annoyance.
Now Mr. Vostrikov is a candidate on the list of "United Russia" in the regional council in the Central District of Kemerovo. He admits that he does not campaign - "I'm not running for a single-mandate district". "There are complaints about why he went from United Russia, impose public opinion:" Did your United Russia family kill you? " The concrete people were killed. A multi-party system is an illusion, all parties from one tower are managed, and a real opportunity to pass is only from United Russia, "believes Igor Vostrikov. He specifies that he was nominated to the regional council as an example for other participants of the movement "The Voice of the People" (he created it after the fire, in the group of the VKontakte movement there are 12 thousand people). "" United Russia "I'm interesting as a public politician", assures the candidate.
Most of the list now consists of representatives of large enterprises, which are ready to spend on the campaign from 3 million to 30 million rubles. The first number in it is Sergey Tsivilev, and the list is positioned as "his team". One of the sources of Kommersant in the party claims that the list was compiled by Alexei Sinitsyn. "It is a myth! A person is endowed with something that does not belong to him. Of course, there were discussions with the candidates, it was proposed to nominate bright resource people, "he replies. New rules for the formation of the list explains: "The binding goes to the territory, in the districts for the victory, financial resources are needed, the primaries were held in an open model, the FIGs nominated their people, the collectives voted for them."
The speeches of the Kemerovo officials still sound Soviet motives. In the attributes of the region also much like the USSR. Slogans in Soviet style hang on slits and mines, Novokuznetsk guests are met by a quote from Mayakovsky on the house near the station: "While such people are in the Soviet Union". The economic scheme also came from the USSR. "In the Soviet times, the outskirts of Novokuznetsk were behind mines, they were engaged in housing and communal services, cleaning streets, deliveries to stores, kept houses of culture, kindergartens, helped schools," says Baidaevka resident Sergei. In this village and in the neighboring Abashevo, the mines have already closed and the infrastructure is decrepit. Operating sections and mines are engaged in both economy and social sector, and the administration of the region concludes agreements with them on the so-called socio-economic partnership (there are more than fifty of them for this year). Typically, they indicate what amounts of coal miners will spend on social needs, and even promise to achieve certain economic indicators.
Maxim Uchvatov considers the scheme ineffective: "Owners of the sections and mines are still under agreements with the administration, for example, repair roads. There are no tenders, competitions. The mines do what they want and as they want without control. " According to Alexei Sinitsyn, nothing special is happening: "Any large business has social assistance in the budget, such agreements exist in most regions, no one is forcing anyone."
Maxim Uchvatov says that companies do not remain inferior from participating in partner programs. "There are not described specific points, officials simply ask" help. " In the company specify: on what exactly? For example, the administration responds: for a holiday or gifts to orphans. Oh well. And if you then look at the details - money went to the funeral of an official or to his rest. At best, for some mass event, or at school, they will change windows, or computers in the municipal administration, "argues Mr. Uchvatov. In his opinion, as a result, "coal companies began to replace the municipal power in the localities."
"Tuleyev came to power, said: we need only large enterprises. We mine coal, we need metallurgy, and that's it, point. An entrepreneur is a speculator, "recalls Pyotr Fink." The relationship has become simple: the owner gives some money for social needs, and the government agrees that he is registered in an offshore company. " Active people, he said, the region began to leave: "why fight, if you can safely do business in the same Novosibirsk".
Igor Vostrikov explains that the administration of the region seems to be supporting the creation of business. "But according to one program a single payment of 60 thousand rubles is put, what can be done on them? On the other - a loan with a large interest ", - lists Mr. Vostrikov. He considers himself to be a "small fish". "I am not interested in the authorities, they are working at the top," he says. The very top is coal mines and large-scale industry. The methods of work at this level were specific. "Tuleyev goes to the podium and begins to criticize the owner of the cut: he delays wages, with the environment bad. As a result, they find a new, supposedly more efficient owner, "explains Maxim Uchvatov.
In the region there are federal companies "Evraz", SUEK, "Rusal". There is also a local player, the company "Siberian Business Union", which was sponsored by Aman Tuleyev - she owns several sections, large industrial enterprises, Kemerovo airport, distilleries, construction firms and much more. The head of this company Mikhail Fedyaev is considered one of the people closest to Aman Tuleyev, but now he supports Sergei Tsivilev.
The provincial governor himself talks about changing the approach to business priorities. "Of course, the basis of the Kuzbass is a large industry, but if only it works, then the region becomes a colossus on clay feet. The share of small and medium business in the economy of Kuzbass is negligible - 15.8%, and in developed countries it sometimes reaches up to 80%. We have something to do; probably, small and medium-sized business for today is one of the most important locomotives of a breakthrough in the development of the economy, "assures Sergei Tsivilev. He says he will change the partnership program with big business. "They will be fundamentally different. We will prescribe environmental issues, issues of industrial safety, resettlement of housing, "the governor assures.
He gathers a new team - about 30 officials have been replaced, including vice-governors. "I will form the team first of all from local cadres, everyone who came to the vacated posts - this is still all local," explains Sergei Tsivilev, not excluding the possibility that external specialists will be attracted to certain positions. According to Kommersant's information, the post of vice-governor for industry was proposed to Anatoly Pristavka. Mr. Tsivilev hopes for the regional program "Leaders of Kuzbass". One local politician says that "new cadres" are still "people who grew up in the Tuleev system." "Vice-governor for domestic policy Olga Turbaba - a person of the SDS and Fedyaeva, Alexey Sinitsyn worked at Tuleyev, natives of the SDS come to other posts. Tuleyev left, and his people stayed, which means that so far the system has remained, "he complains. In this case, a source close to the administration of the region assured Kommersant that people who are not connected with Aman Tuleyev's system will soon appear.
The election headquarters of Sergei Tsivilev is headed by actor Vladimir Mashkov - a native of Novokuznetsk. The degree of his influence is difficult to overestimate. At the celebration of the 400th anniversary of the city, the actor was in great demand - the residents were constantly photographed with him. "We know and love!" - exulted one of his fans. With Sergei Tsivilev, people were also willingly photographed at the fair. And he happily approached the trays with goods, talked with the sellers, drove rounds and shikal to the administration staff, who offered to go faster. "While for people it's a curiosity. Aman Tuleyev moved on a cortege, there was no direct communication for a long time. Tsivillev is not embarrassed and even seeking, he is very open, a living person, "the Kemerovo official is amazed. While the credibility of the residents who want change, the provincial governor obviously has. "But Tuleyev just walked away from politics, he did not leave it. Now we are discussing the increase in the retirement age, this is Tuleev's topic, and he can use it to criticize the new government, "fears Pyotr Fink. However, instead of preparing the recall of the Legislative Assembly for pension reform (the question was removed from the agenda of the meeting, although later a committee meeting was held that approved the reform), Mr. Tuleyev sent his personal one to the State Duma with a positive response on raising the retirement age. Nina Ostanina believes that this "once again underscores Aman Tuleyev's desire to attest to his special attitude towards the federal government."