But officially these fields are not present. The land on which grows soybeans, does not appear in circulation and all soybeans grown sent to China. Since it does not pay taxes, the Chinese are working on soybean fields, as it does not exist - they are illegal immigrants. And this is not footage of the sci-fi thriller "Soylent Green" about the greenhouse effect, the threat of famine and universal switching to soy. So learn the Chinese Far East and Siberia.
No one can say how much they land here, no one knows exactly how many of them themselves. Someone says 400 000 people, someone - a few million. May 24, three days after the signing of a 30-year gas contract between Russia and China, the vice-president of China Li Yuanchao proposed to populate the Far East and Siberia, Chinese. "In the vast territory of Russia, and China -. The most hardworking people in the world if we can combine these factors, then we will get a significant factor of development", - said Li Yuanchao at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum. The depletion of land and population growth forced the Chinese Communist Party to declare maintenance of food withoutrity main priority of the country. Following the announcement, the network has the slogan "our Crimea, Siberia yours." After all, in fact, Li Yuanchao proposed to legalize the Chinese living in Russia, to open the gates to new immigrants, and finally master the wealth of Siberia and the Far East. In the Far East officially live only 6.3 million people. At the same time the population of the region over the past two decades has decreased by more than 22% due to migration. The situation is such that these areas or will be further degraded and emptied, or they inhabit Chinese.
In the Amur region there are 500 000 hectares of soy fields. It produces 45% of Russia's soybean (and most of all, compared with other regions of the Far East). In the region want to organize a cluster bean, to raise him by agriculture of the Far East. For this legume are excellent climatic conditions and a huge market. One and a half billion Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Taiwanese traditionally eat it and feed the pigs soy. Russia is the world's third largest marketby soy consumption, after the US and China. Soy cluster - a field in which to grow new varieties of high-protein soy negennomodifitsirovannoy and enterprises for its advanced processing, producing soy protein and soy flour. In Russia, such plants yet. In the Far East make extruded soybean meal feed for cattle and soybean oil. And in China, has 50 factories of deep processing of soybean products, which are to replace the meat in the sausages, the replacement of sugar, cocoa, baking powder into the egg and so on. Celestial replaced with the Russian and global markets, even Americans. Meanwhile, not only in Asia but around the world recorded a boom in soy products: soy milk, soy meat substitutes, etc. This is a healthy food, no cholesterol, if the culture is not grown from genetically modified seeds.. And in Russia, soy products - it is an expensive and exotic vegetarian food. If the US-liter bag of soy milk at retail costs one dollar, in Moscow asked him four or five times more. The food of the future is likely to be composed of soy. No wonder Soylent (soylent) - Universal nourishing blend created by the Americansm Rob Rhinehart - contains the word "soy" in its name. "According to the Research Institute of Nutrition data, half of Russia's population is experiencing a chronic protein hunger to overcome it can only be due to increased production of plant proteins and mainly of soy protein on the alignment of the protein deficit at the expense of livestock production will take many decades, but due to soy -.. Seven -Eight years ", - explains the president of the Russian Union of soy Anatoly Ustyuzhanin. Far East can provide 2.5 million tons of soybeans a year. This is about 1.6% of world production and about 50 billion rubles. revenue. To do this, you must sow 1.25 million hectares (roughly seeded in Soviet times). But you want to invest 36.7 billion rubles., According to the program of the Ministry of the Far East to form a cluster of soybean. If this can be done, soybeans become a geopolitical crop, the success of which will depend on the cultivation of the future of Far East and Russia as a whole.
The fate of the initiator
Among the initiators of the cluster of soybean was the owner of "Amur soy toCOMP ANIES "Sergei Skripnikov. His company provides technology, equipment, seeds and know-how soy producers. He studied the soybean production in the University of Texas, and twenty years of experience in this business. For two years he lived in Blagoveshchensk to run the plant for deep processing of soybean in Belogorsk. But last year, in the Amur region happened a strong flood, which killed more than half of the harvest. Instead of 1 million tons are collected only 400 000 tonnes. in this situation, no investor wanted to invest in a plant for processing soybeans "Amur soy companies . "Supporting soy cluster Minister for development of the Far East Viktor Ishayev ceased to be a minister. Skripnikova had to give up in the Far East plans and return to Moscow. Now soybeans he grows in Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol. Japanese Itochu is ready to invest in its processing plants soybean in the south, however, the flood -. not the only reason why Skripnikova had to abandon the plant in the Amur region. The construction of such an enterprise would cost $ 70 million. HTo take out a loan, it is required a deposit of $ 140 million. The government has refused to provide state guarantees for such loans. Interestingly, the Foundation for Development of the Far East and the Baikal region with a registered capital of 15.5 billion rubles. He announced plans to build a casino, 20 km from the airport of Vladivostok. The Fund invests soybeans did not. On the question of "Ko", why the casino is more important for the country than soybeans, managing director of the fund Yevgeny Sidorenko could not answer. Meanwhile, says Sergey Skripnikov, "soybean business is very profitable, only Russian company brings from China each year more than 150 000 tons of soybean proteins (isolates and concentrates) in excess of $ 400 million, and could produce them itself and import." Although in the Amur region has not yet learned how to grow soybeans with high protein content, so the Japanese to buy it is not ready. In China, the shortage of arable land is marked and its inhabitants are happy to go to grow soybeans in the Far East. Basically illegally. According to local manufacturers, who asked not to be named for the Chinese privately leased land grow soybeans and all her - too informal - are trafficked to China, xhile the authorities deny it. The cost of the export - $ 250 per ton on the "gray" price, officially - $ 750 per ton. Export duty - 20% of the value of the product. Officially in 2012. Amur region to China exported 70,000 tons of soybeans and how much unofficially known. However, to legalize this business on a proposal from Li Yuanchao the Russian authorities do not wish to. "When I wanted to hire Chinese to work to grow soybeans, they said, hiring someone like - Koreans, Uzbeks, but not Chinese - says." By "host a soy company from Blagoveshchensk - The authorities are afraid that in twenty years the Far East thanks labor migration will be entirely Chinese, Russian But leave the Chinese -. the best workers, they work, do not drink for ten hours, do not smoke. " Amur government in 2012 stopped issuing working quotas Chinese peasants: they used to fertilize fields toxic chemicals.
Jewish Autonomous Oblast (EAO) has a border with China 550 km long and is considered the number three soy region, after the Amur region and Primorye tost. Here the Chinese are legalized and feel more secure, than in other regions of the Far East, where the registered Chinese firms are very small. Companies in Heilongjiang Province in 2013 planted 248 000 hectares, or 21.8% of the total cultivated area. This is the official data of the JAR Government. At the same time, foreign companies are grown almost all soybeans in the autonomous region. This legume is 12% of exports to China EAO. At the train station Ungun Leninsky district was the farm. State Farm was closed, and now here since 2009 working company "Agrosoya". It belongs to "Baotsyuanlin" Far East Agriculture Company of Heilongjiang Province, to rent 400 hectares of land. For processing it enough ten Chinese working on tractors and combines, said by telephone, "Ko" Lena translator or Lee Yun Sen. They want to expand, but the next year. In 2013, due to flooding killed harvest, the firm had financial problems, and all the staff went home. Visa they are given only a year. On salary - 8000-9000 rubles. per month - many workers "Agrosoi" live at home throughout the winter, when the season comes to an endsoybeans. At home they are paid less, but how much, Lena says. "We accept and Russian, but they are not able to work on our technique, are employed, and often do not go to work the next day, drink", - complains Lena. But in general the Chinese in Ungune like: clean air, beautiful nature. Russian said that the Chinese pay a little, besides, they have taken a kindergarten, and the local is now nowhere to take the children. The Jewish Autonomous Region has many villages and Chinese names are: here in the fields and greenhouses peasants from Heilongjiang grow vegetables and some rice. Vegetables from the Chinese is two times cheaper than the Russian farmers, and they manage over the spring and summer to shoot a greenhouse for two or three crops. Lee Yun Sen said that the Russian often steal vegetables, seeds and fertilizers. In general, the Chinese and Russian different ideas about life. "Russian farmers are unlikely to be completely superseded by the Chinese in the Far East, - says CEO of the Institute for Agricultural Market Studies (IKAR) Dmitry Rylko -. To enter the industry, there are administrative barriers, as well as the Chineseistsiplinirovannye people break the rules will not be. "
Millions of hectares of forest to Chinese
Deputy Chairman of the Peoples Republic of China Li Yuanchao couple of years ago, asked the Russian authorities to 1 million hectares of forest for their countrymen. There was news that 1 million hectares of forest has been isolated to the Chinese under the cutting, but FFA has denied this information. Today the two companies middling - the company "Xin Chun-Wood" (a gain of 118 million rubles.) And OOO "Ecoles" (60% in LLC "Suyfenheyskaya import-export company" Longjiang-Bayshen "revenues of 7.3 million rubles. according to the service "FOCUS") - harvest most of the wood in the Jewish autonomous region forest management information EAO, they extracted 260,000 cubic meters from 300 000-340 000 cubic meters per year A timber mill "Ecoles".... producing laminate is a priority investment project area 80% of the Chinese exports in the Jewish Autonomous region -. at the expense of forests and wood, but southern neighbor is not limited to agriculture and forestry Kimkano-Sutarskoye GOK, producer of iron ore for the GC "Petropavlovsk".. builds are chineseSingle SNEEC money Industrial and Commercial Bank of China. The plant will produce 10 million tons of iron ore and export it to China. Rudnik "Cross" South Khingansky deposits of manganese ore settles Chinese Ltd. "Hemen - Far East". It will also produce manganese ore here. China Investment Corporation and the Foundation for Development of the Far East are willing to invest in the construction of the bridge across the Amur River to transport ore. The bridge with the railway length of 2.2 km will connect with EAO Heilongjiang Province (capacity of up to 21 million tons), which will be shipped ore. Russian companies alone, without the Chinese investors were unable to realize these projects over the years: there was no money and personnel.
In the 1990s, China has asked the Russian Federation to pay for rent Zarubino port in the Sea of Japan. It is the southernmost port of our country, it is located in the Primorsky Territory, 18 km from the Chinese province of Jilin. The flow of goods from China's north-eastern regions to the south passed through the Chinese port of Dalian. Rerouting Zarubino to be reduced for the Chinese transport "shoulder" moreI eat at 1000 km. In addition, it would allow to unload the railway to Dalian. Russia would be able to develop the port in Trinity Bay and earn revenue from the Chinese transit. Chinese investors were ready to invest their money, put in your own port management for more effective management. "Production costs in China's ports today is twenty times lower than in Russia," - counted Michael Terek, director of the Pacific Center for Strategic Research. Even it planned to create free economic zone "Tumen". But Russia did not agree. May 20 during Russian President Vladimir Putin's visit to China, a group of "Sum" brothers Magomedov signed with the Chinese province of Jilin contract on loading the Big Port of Zarubino in Primorye. Up to 60% of the turnover of the port - the transit of goods from the northern provinces of China to the south. Cargo turnover - 60 million tons, the port investment may reach 40 billion rubles. A key target for "amounts" should be the grain terminal is 10 million tons per year, which is planning to build a United Grain Company (UGC, 50% minus 1 share in "Amounts", a majority of the state). finanation of the terminal will be included in the port allocated 7 billion rubles from the federal budget. Today, the export of grain to the Asian-Pacific region is 30 million tons. Grain supply in these countries, Australia and the United States, the volume of Russian supplies, located directly in the region, and not thousands of kilometers away from it, remains low. "Sum" see for themselves the prospect is to gradually increase its share in the supply of corn to 10 million tonnes (currently third). In March, UGC and Fesco (included in the "Amount") have signed a memorandum of cooperation with the Japanese Marubeni, in which the grain export volumes from the Far Eastern ports can be increased up to 5 million tons per year (currently tens of thousands of tonnes). Deliveries will begin in Vladivostok sea trading port, but the price of grain has not been determined. "How can the state invest huge money in the construction of a terminal for the export of 10 million tons of grain, when the region is simply not as much grain is grown, livestock farms are closed because there is nothing to feed their pigs and chickens - surprised Sergey Skripnikov -. Bolie, the local wheat is not in demand in foreign markets, as inferior to the price and quality of the Canadian and Australian wheat. "But the representative of the" Amounts "Eugene Timoshin claims that the Far East will be grown additional volumes of grain. Who will build a new terminal in the port ? Big Zarubino the group "Summa" has its own engineering company "Stroynovatsiya" she built Commercial port of Vladivostok it will be the same in the Grand Zarubino But it is much cheaper to hire Chinese:.. only 18 km Jilin province, where 24.5 million live people willing to work for lower wages. "Certainly, there is a shortage of workers in the region, but our project will create at least 1,500 new jobs. And we hope that it is the implementation of projects such as ours, not only stimulates the flow of population to the Far East from other regions of Russia, but also reduce the number of residents of Primorye leaving home region in search of a good job, "- says Eugene Timoshin.
Turning to China
What kind of business or take in the Far East, it is a growing market needs to KeithI and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, or stagnating. And if not international sanctions, everything would continue as it is. But the threat of international isolation has forced Moscow to Beijing to sign the 30-year gas contract worth $ 400 billion and lift restrictions on Chinese investment in the Russian economy. There are new agreements on joint construction of power plants, the creation of long-haul wide-body passenger aircraft, an investment in the Moscow subway, a joint coal mining (in Elegest) and metals of the transport corridor in Crimea, etc. Minister of Economic Development Alexei Ulyukayev expects to increase direct Chinese investment in Russia by 2020, seven times. Today, Chinese investments are small and account for $ 25 billion. Of the known large-scale projects with the Chinese in the Far East can be called the development a large Veninsky oil and gas fields of petrochemical corporation Sinopec on the project "Sakhalin-3" and a few others (see. Table). There are four major operating contract of the hundreds of planned and announced in the last ten years!If talk about Veninsky field, his most part in "Rosneft" (74.9%). Gas reserves are up 578 billion cubic meters. m, and oil - 88 million tons. As gas is about one fifth of the volume of a 30-year gas contract (3.14 trillion cu. M), although China in Veninsky will get only a quarter. Trade with China in 2013 amounted to about $ 90 billion, but it is the biggest in comparison with other countries - trade partners of Russia, and soon he will grow rapidly. The penetration rate of Chinese business and Chinese population of the Far East in the short term is difficult to imagine. The writer Viktor Pelevin's novel "Numbers" predicts, "Now in China waiting for the moment when the temporary administration of the northern pipe will reduce the population of the surrounding areas to fifty million people, followed by the great doctrine of the way of Tao comes last on the vast Eurasian expanse in full."