To explain such a strange appointment, we must remember the political history of the region last half desyatiletiy.Kak Krasnoyarsk governor went out of business in politics.
Date and place of birth: 1965, Moscow
Education: Moscow Financial Institute, economist
1994-1996 - Head of Credit Management "Alfa-Bank", and Advisor to the Chairman and Deputy Head of Client Relationship Management in Commercial Bank "International Finance Corporation"
1996-2001 - "Norilsk Nickel". He held the post of Chief of Audit Department, director of audit work, the Deputy Director General of radioactive waste and the First Deputy General Director of JSC "Norilsk combine"
2001-2002 - first deputy governor of the Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous District
2002-2003 - first deputy governor of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
2003 - Acting Head of Norilsk
2003-2007 - First Deputy Governorand the Krasnoyarsk Territory
Since 2007 - Advisor to the Governor of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for Economic Affairs
2008-2010 - General Director of LLC "Colmar"
2010-2014 - Governor of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
Since May 2014 - Minister for the North Caucasus
Marital status: Married, father of six children
The Russian government has renewed the tradition, characteristic of the domestic state apparatus of the XVII century: to create a department on affairs of individual territories. In Moscow kings functioned orders in charge of Siberia and the former Kazan khanate, and we now have the ministry of affairs of the Far East, the Crimea and North Caucasus.
The most striking head Priangarye in its history, of course, was General Alexander Lebed - a legendary personality. He had a serious chance to become the president of Russia is said to have stopped the civil war in Moldova and found albeit briefly, peace in Chechnya. However, he had no experience of management in the civil sphere, diplomacy is no different, and because his rule in Krasnoyarsk noted suetlivosTew and many conflicts. Team Swan can be described as very unstable. Later, it was estimated that over the years he changed his governorship in a unit of 64 executives (including 40 deputies, 24, head of the department, including 7 Head of Finance Division). For example, shortly before his death in a helicopter crash in January 2002, he fired once 12 of its deputies.
The time when the swan supervised, was not easy for the whole country, and also Krasnoyarsk region are extremely complex structure: its territory included two virtually independent autonomous district - Taimyr and Evenkia, while in the territory of Taimyr Norilsk report directly to Krasnoyarsk.
Combine "Norilsk Nickel", controlled by Vladimir Potanin and Mikhail Prokhorov, it was and remains an important regional player, whose influence on the local economy and political life can not be overstated.
Boss is also intended to become a Territory Anatoly Bykov, the owner of the Krasnoyarsk aluminum plant (KrAZ). However, soon after the election of Alexander Lebed gugovernors began prosecutions Bykov, and although in the end the court acquitted him, he spent several years in prison, and during this time as a result of additional issue of the company became the owner of KrAZ "Rusal" Oleg Deripaska.
On the scene Khloponin
Meanwhile, at the beginning of this century, "Interros" and "Norilsk Nickel", or, as some say local observers, "northern group" launched a campaign to strengthen its influence in the region. Muscovite, who comes from: the general director of "Norilsk nickel" Khloponin, the man whose biography is at first glance a little conformed to the image of severe head circumpolar region - as a figure designed to enter local politics, one of the closest associates Prokhorov, was then selected diplomatic family, financier by training, classmate of Mikhail Prokhorov for financial institutions, the ex-president of the bank "IFC". Yet it was he who in 2001 was elected governor of the Taimyr district, and then almost immediately went into a sharp political conflict with Alexander Lebed. <br />
Taimyr authorities have raised the question of abolishing the subordination Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory. In response, the Swan several times cut the city budget. In March 2002, over 99% of the residents of Norilsk voted for the withdrawal from the city of Krasnoyarsk Territory. Alexander Lebed called the referendum illegal and Norilsk in late March introduced in the Legislative Assembly of a draft law on the creation of a single federal entity composed of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Taimyr and Evenkia.
In April Khloponin and Swan signed a letter of intent to form a coalition government district and inter-regional territory, but failed to reach an agreement. And after the death of the Swan in 2002 Taimyr Governor Khloponin went to the polls governor of the region. His opponent made the chairman of the regional Legislative Assembly Alexander Uss, and, according to local observers for each of the candidates was a big business: for Khloponin - "Norilsk Nickel" for Uss - "Rusal".
Ratings opponents were approximately equal, and yet Khloponin could win, though with a minimal advantage. Regional electoral commission has calledomnenie results of the second round, but President Vladimir Putin, without waiting for the completion of trials, Khloponin appointed as Acting Governor, after which the CEC canceled the decision krayizbirkoma.
Of course, many appointees Khloponin resulted from Norilsk: for example, the former CEO of the Polar Division of MMC "Norilsk Nickel" Vitaly Bobrov became deputy governor for fuel and energy sector, and the former CEO "Norilskgazproma" Sergei Sokol - Deputy Governor for Foreign Economic Relations.
Under the "care" of the governor was the subordination of the regional business federal corporations. "For two or three months after the 2002 elections" northern group "was able to quietly, without scandals (in contrast to the previous era of Cygnus) to resolve all issues of redistribution of property in favor of business: a large part of the energy, wood industry, the forest industry, large construction companies , Yenisei river Shipping Company, etc. The rumors about harsh conditions PeregOVOR (for example, in relation to the country's largest Lesosibirsk LDK, major shareholders - Cyprus Vetolex Trading Ltd. and Aveton Enterprises Ltd.), and then went, but the subject of public debate were not, no one outraged, "- says the analyst of Krasnoyarsk, director of the humanitarian center research and counseling "Current time" Sergei Komaritsyn.
Founder and owner of the gold mining cooperative "Pole", while which controlled 35% of gold production in the Russian Federation, "veteran" of the Russian gold mining and subsequently President of Adygea Khazret Sovmen, signed an agreement for the sale of CJSC "Polus", "Norilsk Nickel" in two days after his inauguration Khloponin. Later Sovmen quite openly said that was the victim of blackmail and deceit, and was forced to sell his brainchild for a sum to two orders of magnitude less than its real value. "I was a friend of the former head of" Glavalmazzoloto "at the Council of Ministers of the USSR and ex-chairman of the Gokhran of the Russian Federation Valery Rudakov, - says Hazrat Sovmen -. In early 2002, he came to me and gave a proposal of the General Director of" Norilsk nickel "Mikhail Prokhorov to sell100% of the shares "the Pole". At first I refused. But after Alexander Khloponin was the governor of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Rudakov appeared again and said: "I want to save you, my dear friend!" Like, "Norilsk Nickel" now not only all political power in the region, but also a great connection to the center, "they do not give work properly."
Nevertheless, the general opinion of the respondents, "Ko" regional expert, Alexander Khloponin was able to skillfully apply as governor of the available skills of his business manager and diplomat. Immediately after coming to power, he was quickly able to achieve repayment of debts to state employees and negotiated with energy to restructure huge debts. When it launched a low-rise building programs to run on the edge of the industrial enterprises actively involved foreigners (mainly from China, North Korea, Ukraine and Tajikistan).
A former classmate of Mikhail Prokhorov Khloponin in 2009 to register in one of the villages of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, to pay taxes here.
However, the governor was comparativebut it's easy: he led a region where Russia has entered a period of long-term economic growth. Krasnoyarsk region, rich in mineral resources, managed to grow at a rate exceeding both the national average, and the Central Siberian. From 2002 to 2010, local revenues rose seven times.
Under the auspices of Khloponin been started many major projects, including "RusHydro" and "Rusal" have organized the completion of Boguchanskaya HPP and the construction of a number of the same name aluminum plant, "Rosneft" has begun the development of one of the richest domestic hydrocarbon deposits - Vankor, which turned the region into a new oil-producing province countries. The volume of timber production in the region since 2005 has doubled. In terms of investment per capita Krasnoyarsk region ranked first in Siberia and the tenth - in the Russian Federation.
However, high growth rates were achieved at the cost of a gradual shift of the local economy in the raw material side, if the share of the mining industry accounted for only 4% of the regional gross domestic product, by 2012 this proportion rose to nearly four-fold, to 15% in 2004, etc.and the share of manufacturing fell from 48 to 31%. As the owner of the trade network of the Krasnoyarsk "Commander" Oleg make hoarse sounds, "in Kemerovo and Novosibirsk regions developed food processing, and we have sources of income were too large to develop small and medium businesses."
Meanwhile, the federal center has introduced the concept of a consolidated taxpayer, allows financial-industrial groups, registered in Moscow, pay taxes on their regional businesses in the capital. Budget edge remains chronically scarce, despite the fact that the "Norilsk Nickel" is registered in Dudinka is the largest taxpayer in the "treasury" of the region. "Many agree that the main trouble of the Krasnoyarsk Territory is legalized and humiliating for Siberians grabilovka from the federal center, - says deputy of the Legislative Assembly of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the chief editor of" Krasnoyarsk Newspaper "Oleg Paşcenco - Imagine: a. The edge of the donor is between costs and revenues in the budget in 2014 to 30 billion rubles. this nalogoand fees in Moscow Krasnoyarsk Territory annually lists of 600 billion rubles. ".
The political component
Alexander Khloponin, showing remarkable diplomatic skills, was able to achieve the loyalty of all existing in the province of political parties. Even his former rival for the election of Alexander Uss was the refrain from criticism of the governor and retained the post of speaker of the regional.
In addition, all observers note that Khloponin was the largest master of public relations, and self-praise, and why was the founder of the Krasnoyarsk Economic Forum.
Important transformations in the political career of Alexander Khloponin took place in 2007, when Potanin and Prokhorov started a business division, and the "northern group", which was considered a protege of the governor disbanded. Remembering this time, Sergei Komaritsyn says: "Khloponin tried to maneuver, but essentially sided with Prokhorov Khloponin and his entourage turned out." Team of people "in the" people's system "and began to focus more on the Kremlin, however, they tried. maintain personal and Corporative ties with his old business. The edge guide all mixed up, "Potanin people", "people Prokhorov," "people Kedrinsky" etc. (Vladimir Kedrinskii - then the head of "Norilsk nickel" representation in Krasnoyarsk -. Note "To.").
Talents Khloponin and his reorientation of the Kremlin have been evaluated, and the Krasnoyarsk forum allowed him to communicate more with the country's elite. As a result, when it was established North Caucasian Federal District, Krasnoyarsk governor successfully cast on the most difficult front of government work.
The fact that the Kremlin is easy to send in the regions of people in these areas do not have any relationship, long known. But it can be argued that the appointment of Khloponin in the Caucasus was not a way to remove objectionable governor, but a sign of high confidence and even a kind of increase. It proves it by the fact that Khloponin was allowed to leave in Krasnoyarsk his chosen successor.
In the wake of
Lev Kuznetsov, Krasnoyarsk became governor in 2010, it has always been with Alexander Khloponin, the "second". They were born in oneyear and about the same time graduated from the Moscow Finance Institute. They say that Kuznetsova had a nickname Pentium - the ability to quickly take over. When Khloponin led the Bank "IFC", Kuznetsov worked there his adviser. When Khloponin headed "Norilsk Nickel", Kuznetsov worked there as head of the Audit Department and Deputy Director General. When Khloponin became governor of Taimyr, Kuznetsov immediately moved to a chair Deputy Governor and Chairman of the State Property Management Committee of the county. Of course, when Khloponin was elected governor of Krasnoyarsk Territory Lev Kuznetsov became his first deputy in charge of the relationship with the business.
However, in 2007, just when Prokhorov and Potanin initiated the process of "divorce" and Khloponin, on responses of political scientists began to grow roots in the Putin system, Kuznetsov suddenly left Khloponin (at least outwardly), "having got" own business.
Lev Kuznetsov became the head of coal holding "Colmar" is engaged in production of coking coal in Yakutia. By 2008, the turnover toMpano exceeded 600 million rubles., and the profit reached 150 million rubles. "Colmar", apparently, was the main business asset Kuznetsova. In addition, he was elected to the Board of Directors of JSC "Krasnoyarsk Nonferrous Metals Plant named after VN Gulidova", led by investment company "Fabrice" and became a co-owner of "Transmost", created for the construction of bridges and roads to the Boguchanskaya HPP and created around industrial facilities . In 2009, Lev Kuznetsov official income amounted to 119 million rubles.
But the connection between "vassal" Kuznetsov and "suzerain" Khloponin is not interrupted, it intensified when Khloponin was sent to the Caucasus, and Kuznetsov immediately succeeded him in Krasnoyarsk. After that, the coal holding "Colmar" get "ONEKSIM" Mikhail Prokhorov, who later sold it to Gennady Timchenko. "Transmost" departed minority shareholders of the company, the construction entrepreneur Yury Martsenko and at the moment is on the verge of bankruptcy.
Official Lev Kuznetsov income immediately declined sharply: from 91 million rubles. in 2010 to 14 million rubles. last year, while at the same time the spouseva Kuznetsova earned 65 million rubles.
About the governor Kuznetsov did not say a bad nor good. The adjusted when Khloponin management system continued to operate by inertia, but the brightness, charisma and leadership qualities that are characteristic of his political boss, Kuznetsov did not have, he was always "second". In his inaugural speech, the new governor declared policy of predecessor continuity of policy, with the emphasis on continued support already launched major investment projects in the Krasnoyarsk region and the preservation of stability.
"He was certainly not lucky Unlike Khloponin, who ruled in the period of sustained economic growth, it has come at a delicate time, however, it is the scale of the individual other He was considered a good manager, but the governor of it did not work..." - He speaks of Leo Sergey Kuznetsov Komaritsyn.
The head of the regional government with Viktor Kuznetsov became Tomenko - financier, who has worked all his life in the "Norilsk Nickel" and even higher education received in Norilsk.
Key figures "hloponinskoy "team left the city together with Khloponin, and some of them got seats in Moscow. In particular, the ex-head of the regional government Alexander Novak was the Minister of Energy of the Russian Federation, the former Finance Minister Mikhail Kotyukov now head of the Federal Agency of scientific organizations (Fano), and ex-Minister of economy Sergey Vereshchagin went to the company "Resorts of the North Caucasus". Thus, the transition Khloponin in the federal government has allowed many of his colleagues on the government to make federal Krasnoyarsk career. But the governor Lev Kuznetsov as a result he found himself in the situation of staff shortage.
"Unfortunately, it did not lead to the edge of the brightest managers are replaced officials on weaker compared to Khloponin's team." - Says CEO of the agency "VIS-Inform" Denis Poskonin.
Probably the result of staff shortages have become a criminal case against local officials. Thus, the former Industry Minister Denis Pashkov edge recently received a five-year sentence for embezzlement of budgetary funds. Transport Minister Zahar Titov prohodil as a witness in the case of theft in the Railways, was removed from office and had emigrated from Russia.
Among its major projects Lev Kuznetsov called non-investment, and social: the construction of a fourth bridge over the Yenisei, the oncology center and holding of the Universiade in Krasnoyarsk (scheduled for 2019). The vector in the economy is clear: against the background of growth of primary industries in Krasnoyarsk continued degradation of the processing industry, many businesses were closed, for example, Divnogorsk Plant of low-voltage machines, Krasnoyarsk Combine Plant and "Sibtyazhmash".
The Strategic Initiatives Agency, which monitors the investment attractiveness of several dozen Russian regions, "Ko" reported that the National rating of the state of the investment climate of the Russian Federation subjects of Krasnoyarsk region is in Group A, ie those receiving the highest scores of entrepreneurs. Agency experts have noted that the region has a good record on the effectiveness of institutions for business: established direct communication channel investors and pyMandership edge meets all investment portal, adopted a regional law on the Commissioner for the Protection of the rights of entrepreneurs. Successfully works Investment Council, which is the former Governor of the Territory Lev Kuznetsov has always conducted himself. In general, Krasnoyarsk region - one of the most open of all the regions in terms of contact authorities with the business community. However, local experts contribute to this assessment material adjustments. "The relationship with the governor formed with only two metallurgical giants -" Norilsk Nickel "," Rusal "and its subsidiaries, with the rest of the same did not happen - says Denis Poskonin - A striking example - the fate of Divnogorsk Plant of low-voltage equipment:. In the last ten years he changed ownership five times. In 2013, it was closed and the equipment cut into scrap metal. Or take ZAO "Sibtyazhmash", which also can be saved because it was one of the largest enterprises of Russia east of the Urals, bridge, heavy manufacturing and specialized cranes " .
Interviewees "To" experts primarily fromMight Lev Kuznetsov role in maintaining social peace in the region.
"The region at Kuznetsov remained a balance: Moscow and Krasnoyarsk feuding people and the authorities in the region are tolerant to each other ... In fact at the Swan, and earlier in Moscow Zubov was cold and the people in the bitter edge Khloponin failed truce as well. Kuznetsov below this line and the low bar only held ", - says Oleg Paşcenco.
"Kuznetsov was able to maintain a balance between the major players, not given to develop" economic war "between the major FPG edge -" Norilsk Nickel "and" Rusal ". Edge took over control of the project," Rosneft ", such as" Vankorneft "Kuyumba pipeline - Taishet. The construction of a fourth bridge over the Yenisei River in Krasnoyarsk. The governor was able to build and maintain a good relationship with the city of Krasnoyarsk, which did not exist before administration. I won Edkham Akbulatov with the active support Kuznetsova in the elections of the edge of the capital, a major manager with Khloponin, and now man squad Kuznetsova, "- says Denis Poskonin.
Close by localm measurements, the scandal turned a construction project in the region of the Yenisei Ferroalloy Plant, Kemerovo implemented by "Check-SU.VK", founded by CEO Victor Khrolenko and chairman George Ramzaitsev. The project cost is estimated at 22 billion rubles. But it caused mass protests of the residents of Krasnoyarsk, who feared deterioration of the ecological situation in the city. In less than six months, an unknown social movement "against the Krasnoyarsk", which demanded a ban on the construction of "dangerous production", has become one of the most influential forces in the city. Since the meetings were held before the elections to the State Duma and the Legislative Assembly of the region in December, Lev Kuznetsov announced the severance of all available agreements with "Check-SU.VK". Courts with investors continuing.
"Kuznetsov went to the situation with" Check-SU.VK ", - says Denis Poskonin -. There was also a" multi-layered "game, but information about it was extremely small manganese plant investor does not understand the rules of this game and did not explain to residents. they benefit from the noekta. Under the Duma elections in 2011, a team of political consultants Kuznetsova voters warmed environmental movement "poison-plant", as a way out of the situation is not thought out. As a result, the edge has lost a major investor, new jobs and tax revenues, and political technology merrymaking with the electorate brought the "United Russia" in the city of 31%, in the region of 36%. As a result, the elections in 2013, in the City Council of Krasnoyarsk won proteges Anatoly Bykov. "
Either way, the economy continued to edge with Kuznetsov dynamic growth at a rate of more than 5% GRP growth per year - this is somewhat lower than with Khloponin, but then in the country has slowed growth.
A New era
When envoy Alexander Khloponin North Caucasus region was and still is restless, constantly flashing in the news reports of the security forces operation against militants. According to Associate Professor Sergey Markedonov RSUH when Khloponin worked ambassador, in his activities economic and social issues come to the fore, and security issues have been pushed back a bit. However, the main "peace" project in the region -"Resorts of the North Caucasus" - is developing very slowly, as those wishing to invest in tourism is not far from Chechnya and Dagestan little.
In 2014, Alexander Khloponin was another increase, becoming Deputy Prime Minister, responsible for, among other issues, was in and the development of the North Caucasus. Now the embassy will be more focused on security issues, as Khloponin will continue to deal with the socio-economic development of Moscow. As Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Khloponin has to show his skill in attracting investors, which he demonstrated in the rich raw stocks Angara.
In reporting to the new deputy prime minister turned created Ministry of the North Caucasus for the first time in the history of Russia. And the role of the head of a key ministry for himself, which is to coordinate the local government and to negotiate with investors, newly deputy prime minister, of course, called the man, for many years he served as deputy or successor - Lev Kuznetsov. So Krasnoyarsk Governor-Muscovite was "mainly on Severnth Caucasus. "
Well, Krasnoyarsk gubernatora- got another "outsider" - a former governor of Novosibirsk region Viktor Tolokonskiy.
"Tolokonsky gets the edge as the territory, bringing a good income, but a significant part of these revenues shall be deleted, - says Denis Poskonin -. Therefore, the problem of competent, proper and fair distribution of taxes becomes the head of the region one of the most important a lot of socially important projects formulated in the region.. This modernization of pre-school education, and co-financing of the future Universiade, and the construction of an indoor football arena in Krasnoyarsk, APK support, preservation of cultural heritage in Yeniseysk. Therefore, the future governor, whoever that has become, there is work to do. It would be a desire. "
career history and Khloponin Kuznetsov shows at least two important facts. Firstly, it is often quite beneficial effect is the use of the civil service managers with experience in the private sector, but unfortunately, the state rarely resorted to such personnel schemes. For Woryh, even people who once considered proteges certain business forces in the current political system can survive only by becoming servants of the same single power vertical.