Fled abroad, leaving debris only recently a thriving business and millions in debts - scheme is rapidly gaining popularity. This year, the champion of the scale of its implementation would be, it seems, the owner of "TsentrObuv" Sergey Lomakin: the debts of the company are estimated at 30 billion rubles, the investigation is studying the deal, which seems to have been withdrawn money and, at the time of the entrepreneur who founded such. successful projects in retail, as a "penny" and Fix Price, it seems gone.
In the midst of the 2008 crisis, 35-year-old Sergei Lomakin was already regarded as a successful businessman. The sale of the network "Kopeika" bank "Uralsib", he earned about $ 120 million, which are invested in different network discounters. In early 2009, it was agreed upon one of these deals - Lomakin Khachatryan and bought one-third of the shares "TsentrObuv" for $ 40 million "The amount of investment is that" TsentrObuv "tired to open new stores," -. Rejoiced when businessman.
Sergey Lomakin It is no longer in Russia. According to the mobile, he also did not respond. With respect to "Center" and JSC "TD" TsentrObuv "" court procedures introducedat follow-up. From network to 1.5 thousand. Stores less than 200 points left. Former partners in response to the claims of creditors is to translate arrows Lomakin, saying that it was he knocked out loans, defined strategy and coordinated the transaction, after which the company actually left without funds.
Fundamentals of the future capital of a graduate of the Moscow Mining University Sergei Lomakin laid in a year when other businessmen were ruined en masse. A year after graduation, in 1998, together with a classmate Sergey Artem Khachatryan and entrepreneur Alexander very latest supermarket chain founded by "penny." Format-store discounter partners assembled in the West, thinking that in the crisis year of the Russian market, he will have to fit. Although business have behind them was only a couple of years, wholesale coffee, they were able to realize the idea is very professional. "It was one of the best management teams in the sector, from scratch to build your business," - he told the magazine "Finance" Shlepov Victor, who in 2003 came to "Penny" to manage the finances of the bank's "UrAlSib ": Last bought a 50% stake in the company.
The main shareholder of "pennies" was Samonov - being older than 12 years and having a vast experience in the business, he received 60% of the shares, and Lomakin Khachatryan - on 20%, but the development of the strategy, as partners have repeatedly argued elaborated together. On the "penny" it has been tested business model, and subsequently implemented in the "TsentrObuv" - aggressive development with active involvement of funds from the market. As a result, by the middle of the zero network consisted of more than 300 stores, among the ten largest grocery retailers country. Shareholders planning the IPO, wanting to sell the shares on the basis of the value of the company at least $ 1 billion, but the market is considered the cost too high, and the deal never took place. But a year later, in 2007, for the same price of the remaining 50 per cent stake, "Kopeika" managed to sell all the same, "Uralsib".
Lomakin with Khachatrian received from the deal for two about $ 250 million, founded the investment company Sun Investments Partners, and have begun to actively invest, as already mentioned, the discounters. First, more out of habit, in produktovy retail (bought a 25% stake in Ural network "Coin"), and then in the glove: Again, on the Western model established network where everything is for sale at the same price - Fix Price, the summer of 2008 gained 5-7% Modis network selling "trendy clothes at affordable prices", and then set their sights on shoes.
"All investments were one of the ideological leader - they are united Sergey Lomakin", - he told RBC magazine Giedrius Pukas, managing partner of investment company Quadro Capital Partners, which has teamed up with lomakinskoy Sun Investments, called by that time Retail Brands Collection. . "We are the generators of competitive advantages as follows, what can beat the competition", - he explained his attachment itself Lomakin. Pukas and Lomakin were partners, and often appeared in public together: Now about this partnership does not want to talk Pukas, a page with information about the past cooperation Quadro Capital removed from the site.
History "TsentrObuv" began in 1992 - Lomakin then studied in the first year and have not yet thought about business. Moscow businessman Anatoly Gurevich, Dmitryth Svetlov first engaged in wholesale of footwear, and in 1996 opened its first store. discounter concept did not come right away, selling Chinese shoes made of artificial materials at low prices at the beginning of entrepreneurs decided to zero. "Few people remember, but it is in" TsentrObuv "were the first to put all the shoes in the sales room: employees should be on the order of magnitude smaller and more convenient to the customer," - says a former employee of Alla network.
By 2008, "TsentrObuv" took the leading position in the Russian footwear market. The network consisted of 309 own and franchise shoe stores in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities, and was estimated at $ 200 million, but stalled in the crisis. Gurevich bright with thinking about starting a youth line: young visitors gained two to three times more shoes than buyers "30", and have been prepared for the fact that by the end of the season bought a pair of collapse. Per the audience decided to learn the format of fast fashion - cheap tracing fashionable footwear. However, to run the Centro (so-called new network) needed investment, and invest in an opaque and risksanny shoe business no hurry. Nevertheless Lomakin, more than a year in Russia vozivshy Chinese goods at low prices, the company is interested.
After the "infusion" sale "TsentrObuv" really began to grow by leaps and bounds. In 2009, the chain opened 50 Centro in 28 Russian cities. The following year - the same amount. In parallel, open shops and the main network. By the end of 2011, the "TsentrObuv" in Russia it was the same name 598 stores and 148 stores Centro with total annual revenues of 30 billion rubles. At the same time, "TsentrObuv" and was aimed at the European market - it stores one after another opened in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Ukraine.
In 2011, Lomakin announced that "TsentrObuv" preparing for the IPO. Soon after going public was postponed for a year, and then completely canceled "due to unfavorable conditions." Lomakin not much lamented: what's the difference, how to attract investments, he said. Moreover, he has a new project - together with the German clothing retailer Takko Fashion, he undertook to develop a network of inexpensive shops under the brand name Family Fashion.
In 2012, "TsentrObuv & quot; showed record growth: total number of stores increased to 1168 over the next two years the network has added a couple of hundred points - according to various estimates, up to 1300-1500, the profit was estimated at 40 billion rubles. This rapid growth, as in the "penny", was provided at the expense of credit funds, "TsentrObuv" credited in half a dozen banks. Sources of "Money" confirm that the credits for the development of the network is knocked Lomakin: given the success of its projects, good knowledge of retail and confident stories about the IPO, the bankers gave money willingly. "He was able to persuade, - says one of the employees of the bank, which credited" TsentrObuv "- well, and the company seemed to be stable."
In the ring of creditors
In early 2015 the counterparties' TsentrObuv "for the first time faced with the fact that the network's number one shoe does not pay the bills. First, landlords and suppliers were asked to wait a little longer, then completely ignore steel. Failures in payments were widespread. After waiting for several months, lenders flocked to the court. By June 2015 a company had already filed 160 lawsuits on obschuth sum 228 million rbl., on their number has grown exponentially. "Debts for rent is more than seven months, the calls do not answer, - complained about one of the landlords in the group in the social network, - filed a lawsuit, asked to wait, if the debt half ready to forgive, promised to pay tomorrow." It got to the point that landlords themselves just close the store, sending staff home.
Around the same time, "TsentrObuv" stopped paying and Chinese suppliers - Asian corporate office was closed. "I was approached by a citizen of China - only its factory" TsentrObuv "owes about $ 7 million A is not the only and not the largest Chinese supplier.", - Says Olga mower, president of IPO support and protection of small and medium-sized businesses, "Business people". According to various estimates, the total amount of debt to suppliers can be up to $ 100 million from the payment stop stopped, of course, and delivery - the network staff do not hide it. Almost all of 2015, the first sold out stocks.
The answer to the question, as the largest shoe chain remained without means and the debts on loans to 25 billion mantasrub., worries many. Police checks the version of the withdrawal of funds through fictitious transactions. These deal drew the attention of law enforcement is one of the largest network of lenders - Gazprombank (in front of him a debt of 8.6 billion rubles.). A source close to the bank, claims that the suspicious transaction attracted the attention of bankers in 2015 for monitoring the financial condition of the debtor, but the management "TsentrObuv" assured the creditors that the deal does not go beyond the normal course of business. One way or another network bought and then sold several times cheaper than a number of foreign legal entities, do not stint on the acquisition of brands and trademarks, which subsequently did not use, contracting debts converted into minority stakes in these companies, and then recognized to be impaired due to a lack of corporate control above them. The Corporation also entered into contracts with the suppliers of the commission - to give funds for the purchase of goods and entrusts them with the implementation. After the execution of the contract, the supplier translates the customer a small 'profit' (less than 1% of the amount received) and RETURNreceived funds set aside for the far later. "Many of the operations within the network" TsentrObuv "created the conditions for VAT refund, - the source says," Money "- that is, if it is confirmed fictitious, exclusively paper the nature of these transactions, it may be that damage is caused not only group of creditors, but also to the state" .
The search for someone to blame
Responsibility for all disputed transactions of the company top management puts it on Lomakin. "Mr. Lomakin, being one of the major shareholders of the company Centrofasion Corp. (BVI), from April 2013, according to March 2015 was appointed managing shareholder of the company with the right to make all operational decisions for all companies, including companies of JSC" Trading House "TsentrObuv" "and" Center "," - said in a document signed by the current CEO Leonid Venzhika (there are at the disposal of the editorial board).
In recent years, Lomakin, indeed, began to curtail activities in Russia put up for sale network "Coin" (franchisee network Urals), got rid of Modis stake. donenoise and buying them a controlling stake in the Italian company Malo, specializing in products made of cashmere - Lomakin it cost no less than $ 40 million, however, as they say in secular circles, it was a gift of a rich man's wife -. Lomakina model Natalia. On the occasion of the purchase of a pair of rolled two loud party in Saint-Tropez, and in Moscow, and even the second brought the brand's founder Giacomo Canessa.
However, "TsentrObuv" believe that the attempt to shift the blame on Lomakin is not entirely convincing. "Until the end of 2014, shareholders often held meetings with us - tell us in" TsentrObuv "- there was also a bright and Gurevich, and Lomakin Yes and guidance we come not only from Lomakin know directly are not subscribed: everyone.. They had their own printing, not official, and -. to internal documents and we know roughly where whose disposition. " The theme continues to another former employee: "It is clear that among them there was any rift, and light is now pretends that allegedly was not aware of actions Lomakin But how can this be.?"
CEO "Yurkollegiya" companyElena Gerasimova, before the introduction of procedures for monitoring helps lenders "TsentrObuv" to repay debts for writs of execution, does not exclude that part of the debts can still be recover in bankruptcy proceedings. "The liquidator is required to check the activities of the leaders on the subject of deliberate bankruptcy - said Gerasimov - and all suspicious transactions to be challenged if the assets were withdrawn, they will try to return, and, as the company just not informed about the impossibility to pay off the claims of creditors must have leadership involved. vicarious liability ". However, in the meantime, it will be a draw, it seems, no one, and return - nothing.