What caused Volkswagen to organize a fraud in California

Two versions of why the company management decided to commit a crime, provoking the biggest scandal in its history.
History looks like a banal Hollywood movie: insidious corporation is ready to sacrifice the interests of society and people go on the offense, if only to earn excess profits; at the end of the film is sure to expose the villains. The only life unlike the movie that the Volkswagen Group fraud (VW) were exposed not a lone hero, and officials from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB).

The fact that violations of the law have been, can not be doubted - it is recognized, and the head of VW US division, Michael Horn, and now former CEO of Volkswagen Group Martin Winterkorn. The question - what caused the VW to go to a conscious, systematic and long-term violation of the law and what company bosses had hoped. The version that the Germans wanted to have blessed the residents of California gas chamber, and because there is sanctioned the sale of cars, emissions of nitrogen oxides, which could exceed the established norm in the United States nearly 40 times, reject immediately. Then I comes to mind this assumption. For example, in the US, which still remain the marketm gasoline vehicles, diesel is really poor quality. Fearing that low-quality diesel fuel can damage the expensive diesel particulate filters cars, VW management has authorized a change in their computer systems so that the exhaust recovery system operating at full capacity only during inspections and in daily operation - half-heartedly. In order not to spend money on warranty replacement.

Another version - California is critical to the conquest of the American market, is a state-trendsetter, and now VW diesels became an overnight to meet the California environmental standards, the most stringent in the world. And it is on their diesel engines - as "the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective" - ​​made VW stake in the conquest of the North American market, intending to invest $ 8 billion by 2018

US regulators have counted that in 2009-2015. VW sold in the United States 482 000 "reprogrammed" diesel vehicles. Spend $ 8 billion for the promotion of fake products, always keeping the risk that fraud will be revealed? And even if we assume hit would be subject to warranty replacement filters in all vehicles, and more than once, VW losses would have amounted to several hundred million dollars. But now the US government only German company could pay a fine of $ 18.075 billion - to $ 37 500 for each vehicle sold. But surely still be claims on consumer protection and environmental companies from dealers ... And only the United States, perhaps, is not limited to - under suspicion fell 11 million of similar vehicles sold VW Group worldwide. Really none of the VW bosses devoted to this scam, do not bother to take a calculator in his hands and say: guys, violation devoid of economic sense? And if the bosses were not in the know, who the modest hero, whose decision only three days since the diesel scandal became public, the damage VW capitalization of 20.7 billion euros? And why do we need such bosses, if they do not control such risks?

The situation is dramatic for the VW Group and anxiety for all the world's automakers. Declaring "the enemy of ecology" can each: all certainly paid attention to that stated in the passport characteristicKach car ecology and economy figures are different from the real - and the real is always higher. But it is not because all automakers - crooks, but because the test cycle operation of cars approved by regulators - which automakers and measure the environmental performance - have little to do with the way the cars drive in real life. Neither the US test the FTP-75, created by the results of measurements in Los Angeles, nor Japanese JC08, simulating the endless traffic jams in major Japanese cities, much less the NEDC European, last updated in 1999 and on which the acceleration from zero to 50 km / h should take ... 26 seconds. A new global test World-wide harmonized Light duty driving Test Cycle (WLTC), which promises to reflect the reality, it is still in the development stage.

Of course, many countries are now officials ottopchutsya on VW and require testing and other companies - not whether they violated laws in this way. Not at justifying the VW, I want to remind that before to urge everyone to play by the rules, you must first create a fair, clear and transparent rules of the game.