Markets know where and how the largest state-owned company produces gas and oil, or to lay pipes. Less well known as its budget is formed, held tenders, suppliers and contractors are determined. Personnel same theme actually banned: corporation does not like to talk about resignations of top managers. In conditions of complete secrecy of information come and go, not only directors of departments and offices, but also the heads of the key areas. Forbes studied the history of the two most important resignations in recent years - Alexander Medvedev, the head of "Gazprom export", which provided 40% of revenues of monopoly in 2013, and Vlada Rusakova, was responsible for the Group's strategy. The circumstances in which two former "Gazprom" character left their seats, give an idea of the true rules of operation of the gas monopoly.
"Where is the money for?" - Asked in exasperation, Russian President Vladimir Putin at the head of "Gazprom" Alexey Miller. In 2001, immediately after the appointment of Miller, it looked like a public briefing on the management concern. The money zarabatyvaet and spends "a national treasure", taken under the personal care of Putin since the early days of his presidency, fantastic. Three consecutive years of the investment program of more than a trillion rubles, discussed the amount 1.027 trillion rubles in 2014.
The huge scale of the - part of the ideology of the company. "Gazprom" - expert on megaprojects, which are so fond of the president, who has made the concept of national champions of their policy center.
The future of "Gazprom" has been predetermined long before the arrival of "St. Petersburg" management team - in his thesis in 1997 a graduate student of the St. Petersburg State Mining University Vladimir Putin. "Without government support, and the creation of large financial and industrial corporations (...) it is impossible to compete with the transnational corporations of the West" - then wrote Putin. The state has the right to regulate the process of development and utilization of natural resources, 'regardless of whether they are in one's property ... acting in the interests of society as a whole and the individual owners, whose interests come into directotivorechie with each other. "
These rules are now. When it became clear that for the last mega-project in June 2014 - a contract to supply gas to China have not yet completed pipeline "Power of Siberia" to "Gazprom" will require $ 55 billion on infrastructure, Putin immediately offered the government to capitalize the company. Miller graciously refused.
For the distribution budgets in "Gazprom" Total War are of local importance, says a former manager of the central office of the group. "These combinations of wins and losses is difficult to create a readable picture of subordination" - he says.
Alexander Medvedev - Miller and deputy head of the "Continental Hockey League", was playing hockey with Vladimir Putin - was once asked which animal he associates himself. "With the alligator", - said a top manager. Twelve years of experience in "Gazprom", with the head of that relationship did not exist, require grip and persistence of a predator. But the result of the struggle for Medvedev disappointing - June 30, 2014 if itshilsya post of the head "Gazprom export". The very top manager refused to communicate with Forbes.
Medvedev appeared in "Gazprom export" in August 2002. Without ceremonies dismissing former head of "Gazexport" (as used to be called "Gazprom export") Oleg Sienko, which did not last half a year, a month later, Miller announced the appointment of 47-year-old Medvedev. His coming to as "sensational" do not call - even old friends were not expecting such a turn, one of them says, adding that the street in "Gazprom" does not get there, "must be put in key positions people who you trust. It's big flows. " Then the "Gazprom" supplies gas to Europe by a third, delivering 128.6 billion cubic meters. m (in 2013, 162.7 billion cubic meters. m).
Medvedev was "confident", says a former employee of "Gazprom export". In September 2002, a novice became a board member of the "big" of "Gazprom", surpassing the current curator export Yuri Komarov.
"Yuri Alexandrovich tried to somehow participate in this process, but Medvedev made it clear: you sit on usetkina (there is a head office -. Forbes), and in "Gazekport" do not come ", - says Forbes said.
In spring 2005, Komarov announced his retirement from the post of deputy chairman of "Gazprom" officially - on reaching retirement age.
This relationship with Miller, "Stripping" "Gazprom" from "strangers" in blitzkrieg mode, Medvedev did not exist. "Hostility not even been formed between Miller and between his team and Medvedev," - says a former employee of "Gazprom export". "We had the feeling that Medvedev and [head of Gazprombank Andrey] Akimov have such a huge personal patronage that Miller had with them is very difficult relationship from the very beginning - this influential people from another clan," - says the then Deputy Energy Minister Vladimir Milov .
A hundred most influential
"The two brothers-acrobat of the [Austrian financial company] IMAG», - Medvedev calls Milov and his former chief Andrei Akimov, Gazprombank headed a few months after the arrival of Medvedev in "Gazprom".They are old friends.
Akimova acquainted with Medvedev supervisor of the last Rair Simonyan, in 1970-1980's worked at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations, where he worked for nine years Medvedev.
"Employees of the institute went to trips abroad and wrote notes the country's leadership that we can improve, the main thing - to insert a quote Lenin," - says Simonyan. According to the instructions of the future top-manager of "Gazprom" amounted to quote pad on the 14 pages of "Lenin on the use of foreign capital for the purpose of socialist construction." Note lay on the table and Leadership Institute was "a detective" read by members of the Soviet Politburo.
And Medvedev in the late 1980s took an internship in Soviet foreign Donau bank comes from a system of Vneshtorgbank Andrey Akimov. Until 2002, the financiers have worked together: first in the bank, and then in the IMAG, established under the mandate of the country's leadership to attract Russian investments.
That Medvedev in the early 1990s, agreed that IMAG will advise the mayor of St. Petersburg on vneshneekononomic Affairs, tells a familiar Akimova. Since the summer of 1991, the Committee on Foreign Relations City Hall headed by Vladimir Putin. At the same time Medvedev met with the managers of the company "Kineks", which tried to sell petroleum products. Shortly thereafter, IMAG has become a consultant "Kineks" - helping and working capital constraints. For international relations in this company posted Gennady Timchenko, a little later to redeem with partners "Kineks" and grow from it of Gunvor, one of the world's largest oil traders.
Representatives of the old team of "Gazprom" confident that it has led to concern Timchenko Medvedev and Akimov.
"Surname Timchenko I learned before she appeared on everyone's lips," - says one of them. But, according to two friends of "Gazprom" top managers, in their parish Timchenko did not play a key role. The level of relations Akimova then was much higher, says one banker was, for example, close to the Central Bank chairman Viktor Gerashchenko. Akimov himself could contribute Medvedev device to work. With Putin's appointment isas we agreed, adding Milov.
Putin knew of the existence of Medvedev, perhaps approve [the appointment], says a person familiar with the president and with the management of the concern. "Putin effectively serves as CEO of, as Miller puts stamp", - said Milov.
"[Putin] - the real manager of" Gazprom ", - says a former top manager of the group.
According to President's press secretary, Dmitry Peskov, personnel decisions relating to senior management of "Gazprom", agreed with the president, but "all the rest" - no, although "it is possible that someone consults with Putin."
In the spring of 2005, Medvedev became the deputy chairman of "Gazprom" maintaining the position of the General Director "Gazprom export". "Medvedev was actively involved in the appointment process, competition. In addition, Akimov and Gennady [Timchenko] much interested in this subject, "- says a former employee of" Gazprom central apparatus. " Timchenko spokesman said the businessman nobody lobbied and promoted not possible to determines personnel policies of other companies he had not.
"Under Medvedev" reorganized the foreign economic activity of the concern, and all commercial contracts, "Gazprom" abroad began to provide "Gazprom export". The company has received under the control of more than $ 30 billion in 2006. In this case the top manager for 12 years did not carry out purges, but his team did not create, say his former employees.
Medvedev, whose journalists German Welt am Sonntag dubbed "Putin's hand, rewarding the faithful and punishing traitors Moscow" has become the mouthpiece of "Gazprom" abroad. In one of the trips, 2005, he stood in the aisle between the rows of the plane and told reporters, who then flew together with top managers, "who asks the best question, to $ 3,000," - says participant in the trip. Medvedev bombarded with questions, he is a lord answered them, but no money earned: in the opinion of top managers, good questions was no. So he went to answer the tough questions, concludes Forbes said.
Medvedev often sent to the front gas wars.
"It Spanishlnyal role Khrushchev, who banged his shoe on the podium: the Europeans threatened, occasionally raising his voice, "- says a source in the company.
With the participation of Medvedev, "Gazprom" has fixed the position of a key gas supplier to Europe, to build a pipeline Blue Stream and Nord Stream, has started the construction of South Stream. Medvedev "waving a sword," and during the "gas war" with Ukraine in 2009, when Europe was in January froze without Russian gas. In that year, Medvedev became the only Russian who entered into the list of 100 most influential people in the world according to the magazine Time. His namesake, the president of Russia, attention spared.
Miller dramatic statements, and those who are inclined to do them, not love, says a longtime friend of the head of "Gazprom", "he is uncomfortable with bright people."
"Public Role Medvedev - aggressive striker. If possible, he will apply the power reception did not hesitate, "- said Medvedev on the legendary hockey player, a senator from Primorye Territory Vyacheslav Fetisov.
The "great hockey," Medvedev went on takeoff career "Gazprom ", leading in 2006 the board of directors of the club SKA, and in 2008 became president of the Continental Hockey League (KHL). The total cost of the KHL clubs in the season 2013/2014 exceed 15.6 billion rubles. "KHL - one of the most successful international projects in our country, - says Fetisov. - Medvedev tried to give the maximum attention to this, and maybe [because of this] was dissatisfaction on the part of "Gazprom".
Medvedev 'too became interested in hockey, "he said in" Gazprom ". Employees tell us how Medvedev has missed the board, because I was at the game.
Another tale: Medvedev dropped into China for talks with Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin, "just to say hello and hit the road to hockey" and angry Sechin called with a question, "Where are you?" In the plane.
"At the opening of [the new building] Mariinsky I sat close to Medvedev, and he was not looking at the stage, but in the phone, - tells the familiar top manager. - I thought maybe the quotes of "Gazprom" monitors? I looked carefully - no, the results of the match. "
Hockey opened two newand: with Medvedev and Fetisov for friendly matches come Vladimir Putin, Arkady Rotenberg and Gennady Timchenko. Its team will appear later and "Rosneft", which was financed CSKA. "Apparently, Medvedev thought that if Putin is playing hockey, that life is good and relaxed" - suggests a person of the central apparatus.
In 2010, rumors emerged that Medvedev may withdraw from "Gazprom export". Miller on the board ironic interest, "Alexander Ivanovich, and you do not hard: and" Gazprom export ", and vice-chairman, and hockey - can give up anything," says former "Gazprom" manager. Several sources close to "Gazprom" say that Miller asked Putin "to change Medvedev." According to another version, the cause of the problems Medvedev - at odds with Timchenko for hockey.
Medvedev gradually began to lose authority. In 2011, out of his control gone almost all international projects for exploration and production. In January, there was a sudden resignation of general director of Gazprom EP International Boris Ivanov, a former adviser to Medvedev and Akimov, recalls former"Gazprom export" shy manager. According to him, Medvedev did not expect such a combination. The then head of a foreign "daughters" of "Gazprom" has confirmed that "Medvedev was the curator as the deputy chairman, but Gazprom EP International activities are not controlled."
Meanwhile, the "Gazprom" of the case became complicated in Europe. Customers can achieve lower prices and volumes of take-or-pay, pointing out that gas prices in Europe markets is significantly lower than the long-term contract with "Gazprom". "Gazprom" was forced to revise the terms of contracts and begun in 2012, backdated to return money to customers. This led to a decrease in revenue of "Gazprom" by 102.7 billion rubles.
"Sasha - a good negotiator, but not a strong manager. He could speak, and realize there is no "- says an old friend of Medvedev.
"It is a problem of all in" Gazprom ", as the strategic decisions - to make concessions on price or not - takes not even Medvedev and Miller, a Putin" - shrugs source close to "Gazprom". This is the first and most important rule functionning monopoly.
Putin sometimes he showed a deep knowledge of the subject, demonstrating the special status of the Russian and foreign businessmen. Thus, at a meeting with representatives of business circles of the Netherlands in 2005, President of Russia, in response to question Shell CEO quarter of an hour strewed figures - "as if preparing for this topic for life", wrote "Kommersant". In 2009, in an interview with The New Times, the disgraced oligarch Boris Berezovsky, telling how he had lobbied for the appointment of Putin, Russia's president, stated that he "categorically rejected the idea, said:" Bor, let me "Gazprom".
"Alexander Medvedev let the situation inside the" Gazprom "to chance", - said a source close to the board of directors of "Gazprom".
Great demotivate people from "Gazprom export" and the office move to St. Petersburg. Employees blame the head that he did not resist the orders of Miller's relocation, and after moving a lot of "Gazprom export" retired.
Changing on the fly
As a result, "contract of the century" on gas supplyto $ 400 billion of China's CNPC, that could become a "star" to Medvedev, proved the beginning of the end. The document, signed in May 2014 after 10 years of negotiations, "80% of the merit of" collective Medvedev, "says a former manager of" Gazprom export ". For participants "was a shock," the delegation that Medvedev at a ceremony in Shanghai did not go, says a businessman close to the negotiations.
Two chiefs have nothing to do in China, Medvedev explained to employees, bearing in mind that the delegation was led by Miller. But several Forbes source close to the leadership of the group, suggest that Medvedev did the will of Miller, not understanding, it will lead to consequences.
"Miller took advantage of the situation", - says the "Gazprom" employee for many years observing the silent opposition head group and his deputy. In June, at the height of the "gas war", one of "Gazprom export" managers without consulting with management details, informed "Naftogaz" of the intention to terminate the contract for compensation Ukrainian side daily fluctuations of gas consumption in Europe.Scandal. Tapes agencies explode "zippers": «Gazprom» severs contract with Ukraine. " Miller called Putin, Miller Medvedev immediately scored and snapped, "What do you have going on," says the employee. "After Miller said that Alexander does not control the situation - he recalls. - And two weeks later Medvedev took off. "
"Medvedev was not the real opponent of Miller, even though he, of course, a bright personality - says the friend of both. - He [Miller] complete confidence in Putin, and no one can break it. "
This is another basic rule of "Gazprom": in spite of all the conflicts and confrontation, Miller's position in the eyes of the president, a close follower of the "Gazprom" is not in question. That, however, does not hinder anybody to intrigue against him.
Now, as head of "Gazprom export" has taken the deputy director of the company's 43-year-old Elena Burmistrov, who worked with Medvedev in the IMAG. In "Gazprom" it oversees the 35-year-old head of the foreign economic activity department Pavel Oder. "Dark Horse" is sewnate in the group in 2007 because of "daughter" of "Lukoil", "sat quietly and was not put out" and suddenly became chief in 2011, "quickly began to gain weight," describes Oderova one of his colleagues.
Medvedev was the penultimate opponent Miller in "Gazprom" manual. There remains one - a colleague of Vladimir Putin's KGB deputy chairman Valery Golubev, who, according to several sources of Forbes, has long wanted to lead "a small company."
This was found - Golubev can become a leader Rosrezerva, told federal official familiar and Golubev. And then around Miller in "Gazprom" will only "his people."
The window of opportunity
"Gazprom" is too large. And the situation is very volatile. And monopoly is not good everywhere, "- says presidential spokesman Peskov discussing with Forbes growing competition within the country. A couple of years ago to hear a representative of the head of the mouth of the state was impossible. Despite the conservatism and caution, Vladimir Putin is forced to respond to changing global konyuKeturah and economic needs.
Bold statements made on the backdrop of the struggle for access to the pipeline "Gazprom" other gas producers, in the forefront of which - "Rosneft" headed by Sechin, and she wins. A year ago, the oil company has acquired an important player - "old-timer" of "Gazprom" Vlada Rusakova. Internal squabbles in the gas companies has led to the dismissal of former top manager, than not fail to take advantage Sechin, who made her Vice President - Director of the Department of "Rosneft" gas business.
"Rosneft" is increasing gas capacity. Less than three months after the arrival of Rusakova, the company acquiring the missing to complete ownership of 49% of third-party gas "Itera", then acquired a stake in gas production "Severenergia" and exchange it for a 51% stake in "Sibneftegas". In the past year, "Rosneft" through acquisitions has increased gas production by 156%, to 41.1 billion cubic meters. m Production of "Gazprom" -. 487 400 000 000 cubic meters. m (0.1% growth).
Formally, the 60-year-old Rusakova, vyahirevsky still frame, retired. In fact, itsdismissal has led the fight against one of the most influential "tops", the curator of the production unit, Miller's deputy on the board of the previous 10 years, Alexander Ananenkov, who left the group in late 2011.
Following two heads of key departments have been dismissed. A strategic development department, which is headed Rusakova, disbanded nine years. "Early Member" of the gas industry, who worked first in the Ministry of Gas Industry, and then came to the RAO "Gazprom", became head of the Department of perspective development - "fragments" of its former fiefdoms. This was a clear decrease.
Ananenkov as Forbes told a few people "disappeared": he suffered from the resignation that did not appear anywhere in "Gazprom", or at meetings of the Shtokman Development AG Board of Directors, which includes, along with Miller. Rusakov, after waiting a year, resigned "due to reaching the retirement age." And after three months the market gasped Igor Sechin appointed its vice-president in charge of a new and important direction of "Rosneft" - gas. For her, it was a breakthrough. for Amarket signal - it seems that "Gazprom" will not only compete for the right to influence the strategic decisions for the development of the country, but also to fight for "a clearing" - Russian gas market.
"I have here a wider range of responsibilities - Rusakova told in a recent interview with" Kommersant ". - In the "Gazprom" ... I worked with businesses only part of the design and implementation, and "Rosneft" I still have the responsibility for ... their economy. " She "always wanted to economic component was decisive." Following Rusakova, says the manager of "Gazprom", Sechin went to more than a dozen employees working with it. For example, one of them, the former chief of LNG export control "Gazprom export" Victoria Shterengarts, played an important role in the negotiations on gas supplies to China. Sechin is easy to entice gazpromovtsev. In addition to more ambitious targets and high positions, "Rosneft" less severe than in "Gazprom" salary "ceiling." In addition, many employees of the monopoly did not want to move to St. Petersburg.
Rusakova Career in "Gazprom" at first was fast. Head of the Department, since 2003 - head of the Department of perspective development of a direct submission to the head of "Gazprom". At the same time she was appointed member of the board. Seven years later, the board of directors nominated, but not chosen (probably because of the inability to take the salute).
Alexander Ryazanov, deputy chairman then, defines Rusakova position: "It was close to our group - people who had an opinion, and this opinion was going sometimes at odds with the basic line."
Rusakova remember the summer of 2004. At the press conference of "Gazprom" bombshell made her response: "If Yukos assets will be sold, we will participate in their purchase." While the possible contenders kept quiet about his plans: the intention to profit by shrapnel Khodorkovsky's empire did not improve the image. The next day, Miller returned from a trip spent with her "debriefing". His press secretary, denied her statement, stressing that the possible acquisition of the company "does not fall within the competence VladRusakova. " A day later, she appeared at a press briefing in "Gazprom". Miller himself had explained several times: "It will be an auction, the auction will not be [on the sale of" Yuganskneftegaz "] - this is not the subject matter ... for us" political statement Rusakov did not do more, but in "Gazprom", according to Ryazanov, it position "caused allergies in producers'.
Economic calculations, it could temper the passion for expensive "project of the century". So in 2009 she was able to freeze the construction of training "Altai" gas pipeline. In contrast to the "Power of Siberia", for which contracts are now struggling company Timchenko and Rotenberg brothers, "Altai" was to go to China to western route. Since 2006, he lobbied the construction of "production," Ananenkov, deputy chairman, but Rusakov ordered a design institute feasibility study: estimated, due to difficult Altai plateau, through which it was intended to lay the pipe, provided the cost prohibitive. Subordinate Ananenkov counted estimate of $ 4.5-5 billion, however, found outsmiling, that in fact the pipeline would cost not less than $ 14 billion, or about $ 5.3 million per 1 km. At the same time Gazprom's construction tend to rise in price.
Negotiations with Chinese on gas supplies were interrupted and resumed, and whenever Ananenkov reminded of the "Altai". Not yet was dismissed. And the Chinese, signing in May 2014 of an agreement on the "Power of Siberia", informed that during the talks with "Gazprom" on the second tube they had gas for its western regions of Turkmenistan. A project "Power of Siberia" from 2011 has risen in price more than doubled, from 333 billion to 770 billion rubles.
In general, the production and export "clans" of "Gazprom" for which he was not love Rusakov. "The works were many, and all down the toilet," - explains the manager of "Gazprom export".
Internal conflicts sometimes became apparent. Gazpromovtsev tell how at a meeting with Miller Rusakova complained about the lack of staff, saying that has to work late into the night and the day before she "got home to two o'clock in the morning." Everyone knew that the apartment is not far from her, but the head of a rivalepartamentov Miller playfully suggested to buy an apartment closer to Rusakova. "If necessary, I myself can not!" - She snapped. The office was a pause. Everyone understood that the joker wanted to put her in an awkward position. "She and Miller, over the years have been tensions," - says a former manager of "Gazprom". - Before leaving, she signed a five-year commitment to a trade secret, but everyone knows that, for many years worked strategist, she knows the weaknesses of the company's location and sighting effort on the patient. "
In last year's presentation of "Rosneft" for Rusakova investors promised in 2020 to increase production to 100 billion cubic meters. m, the increase in the Russian gas market share from 10% to 20% and come abroad. Go Rusakova - one of the elements of the onset of "Rosneft" in the gas market. It seems that now the "Gazprom" management will have to consider that a system of checks and balances works not only within the company, but in relation to it as a whole.
In February 2013 at the Presidential Energy Sechin Commission proposed to abolish the monopoly on the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Putin has approved, and in November the State Duma amended the law to allow the export of LNG to independent producers - "Rosneft" and "Novatek" (. Production in 2013, 62.2 billion cubic meters, an increase of 8.5%).
In July, 2014 with the filing of Sechin, Putin instructed to deal with the access of independent producers to the export pipeline. So far - only to "Power of Siberia" and only for gas from new fields in Eastern Siberia and the Far East.
It may well be that Sechin, trying to "Rosneft", opened a window of opportunity and other independent companies - owned by Timchenko "Petromir", "Surgutneftegas", Yakutsk, Irkutsk oil and fuel and energy.
Meanwhile, Rusakova told "Kommersant", they have already reached an agreement with a monopoly on access to the Trans-Sakhalin pipeline to bring gas from the fields of "Rosneft" have acted on its future plant "Far-LNG."
Rusakov was in the right place at the right time. Mikhail Korchemkin of East European Gas Analysis said that she and her team to "work in" Rosneft "Yingalso interesting. " "The work of the department was in the optimal planning - performing tasks with minimal effort - he explains - but with the 2005-2006 [when Putin's friends were the main suppliers of pipes and construction workers] all began to do the contrary, the work of the department was unclaimed, and Sechin is decides close to optimal. " And luring "not employees of the St. Petersburg mayor's office or rotenbergovskogo" Gaztaged "and experts".
Does this mean that the time of the gas monopoly has passed? "Markets - and international, and our, Russian - not static - recognizes Dmitry Peskov. - There are arguments for liberalization of access [to the pipeline] and against. To the extent that [like some] argument becomes larger, the position [of the state] is changing. "