Vice-President of the Citadel Holding, which unites companies working in the field of information security, including those involved in the creation of operational search systems (SORM), was the former head of the K department of the Interior Ministry, Boris Miroshnikov. About this RBC told two sources and confirmed Miroshnikov himself. From further comments, he refused. Representatives of the Citadel also did not comment on his arrival in the holding.
Colonel-General Boris Miroshnikov for many years led the fight against cybercrime in Russia. In the 1990s, he headed the computer and information security department of the FSB (now - the FSB Information Security Center). In 2001-2011 he was the head of the Bureau of Special Technical Measures of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which is better known as the "K" Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. After leaving the bodies Miroshnikov for a while worked as an advisor to the general director of the payment service Cyberplat. Miroshnikov was widely known for his conflict with Evgeny Chichvarkin, the founder of Evroset. The businessman repeatedly accused Miroshnikov of organizing an attack on Euroset, as a result of which he was forced to sell his share in the company and leave the country.
What protects the Citadel
The Citadel Holding was founded by Anton Cherepennikov and his partners in 2015. According to SPARK-Interfax, Citadel LLC owns 75.85% of Cherepennikov, another 23% from ex-head of the administration of the Volgograd region under the government of Russia Valery Bitaev, the remaining 1.16% belong to two private individuals - Alexey Khrenov and Dmitry Zolotukhin. Cherepennikov is known for his other project - in the company he created in the sphere of e-sports Virtus.pro $ 100 million invested USM Holdings billionaire Alisher Usmanov.
The main specialization of Citadel is the development of software in the field of information security, as well as the production of SORM. The latter are a complex of technical means that FSB and other law enforcement agencies use for their needs ("wiretaps") and which all communication operators in Russia are required to install on their networks. The holding company includes companies "Malvin Systems", "MFI Soft" and a number of companies. Personally, Cherepennikov also owns a share in the developer of the SORM "Basis Lab".
In the critical infrastructure area
The interlocutor of RBC, aware of personnel changes in Citadel, claims that the holding has plans to participate in implementing the provisions of the package of laws "On the Security of Critical Information Infrastructure", which was signed by Russian President Vladimir Putin on July 26. "Miroshnikov was involved in the protection of critical information infrastructure. In ADE [Association for Documentary Telecommunications], he was a regular participant and speaker of the conference "Information Security" and could even lead one of its committees, "said the top manager of one of the Big Three operators.
The objects of critical infrastructure in the law include networks and information systems of state bodies, defense industry enterprises, transport, credit and financial sector, energy, fuel and nuclear industry, etc. By January 1, 2018, when the law comes into force, Measures to protect their infrastructure from hacker attacks. In particular, they will have to connect to the State system for detection, prevention and elimination of the consequences of computer attacks (GOSOPKA), which since 2013 is created by the FSB on behalf of the president. To implement the law, equipment may be needed, but it is not yet known how it should be and who will be able to deliver it.
Cisco Systems Information Security Consultant Alexei Lukatsky said that to connect to the State Security and Defense Committee, it will be necessary to install systems for detecting attacks, most likely having an FSB certificate and transmitting information about threats. "The requirements for such funds have not yet been determined and only stand in the plans of the normative activities of the FSB," Lukatsky said.
According to Gartner, the world leaders in the development of systems for detecting attacks are Cisco, Intel Security, Trend Micro. "For obvious reasons, Western products, although they are used, are not very popular in the FSB, as certification and provision of source codes are required, which foreigners do not go to. Therefore, the FSB actively uses open source solutions. Almost all Russian systems for detecting attacks, which are certified by the FSB, have been built on its basis. The decisions of the companies "Infotech" and RNT are now being applied to the GOSOPKA, "Lukatsky said.
As previously reported by RBC, Said Kerimov, the son of a billionaire and senator Suleiman Kerimov, is going to become the majority shareholder of RNT. FAS approved the sale of 51.6% of RNT to its structures.
"I think that market participants will lobby for each of their interests and tools. The task is large-scale, it is possible to sum up for it a lot and objectively many things will have to be done. I would estimate the cost of implementing the law on the security of critical information infrastructure in an amount comparable to the annual budget for information security in the public sector or even more, about 40-50 billion rubles. "- says the head of the analytical center Zecurion Vladimir Ulyanov.
There are not many generals
According to the source of RBC, who is familiar with Citadel's management, another new vice-president, Sergei Efremov, may appear in the holding in the fall, who currently occupies the general position of the head of the FSB Special Equipment Center (12th Center; DPT). Contact with Efremov RBC failed, in the Public Relations Center and the FSTS FSB did not respond to the request. Information about the fact that Efremov can become one of the top managers of the Citadel, also has a top manager of one of the companies - manufacturers of SORM. "Efremov turns 60 in September, after his birthday in plans to retire and move to the Citadel. In the holding itself, this is spoken of as a settled issue, "the source said.
The DPT oversees the implementation of the SORM in the FSB, the interlocutor of RBC said and confirmed the top managers of the two companies - manufacturers of SORM. In open sources, mention of the work of Sergei Efremov in the FSB with regard to the introduction of SORM is present since the beginning of the 2000s. He is on the executive committee of ADE. Chairman of the Executive Committee of ADE Arkady Kremer told RBC that Sergei Yefremov is currently on vacation, and declined to comment.
What the SORM is looking for
SORM-1 provides for listening to telephone conversations, SORM-2 records users' requests to sites on the Internet. Now all communication operators are obliged to save in SORM traffic and telephone conversations of users within 12 hours, as well as data on the facts of communications of subscribers for six months. As of July 1, 2018, the so-called law of Yarovoi will come into force, according to which the period for storing conversations, correspondence and other communications of users increases to six months, and information on the facts of communications - up to three years, until it is decided how the process will be organized. However, the Ministry of Industry and Trade reported that the modernization of SORM systems is one of the possible options for implementing the "law of Yarovoi."
Operators of communication claimed that the total amount of data stored can be more than 157 exabytes. Expenses for the storage and storage of user data operators of the Big Four (MTS, MegaFon, VimpelCom and T2 RTK Holding, operating under the Tele2 brand) were originally estimated at 2.2 trillion rubles. In total. The FSB and the Ministry of Communications in April 2017 reported that the costs of the entire industry could amount to 4.5 trillion rubles, while the Russian Union of Entrepreneurs and Industrialists (RSPP) said about 17.4 trillion rubles.
"The volume of the SORM market in Russia is about 10 billion rubles. in year. Taking into account the evaluation of the RUIE because of the "law of Yarovoi", it can grow by more than 1700%, "says Irina Levova, director of strategic projects at the Institute for Internet Research. - In our country for certain legislative initiatives are the financial interests of a certain group of people. When you see a strange regulation that does not fit into the logic of a normal person, you need to look for someone's financial gain. "
According to Dmitry Galushko, the general director of the company "Orderskom", which deals with consulting in the field of communications, many companies - Eltex, Protey, Kvant and others - are engaged in the equipment for creating SORM-1, while certified manufacturers of SORM- 2, which can record Internet traffic up to 12 hours, only five: MFI Soft, Norsi-Trans, TechArgos Special Systems, Special Technologies and Signaget.