Boris Nemtsov was born October 9, 1959 in Sochi. His father Yefim Nemtsov worked in the oil industry, Dean Eydman mother - a doctor. Boris was not yet six years old when her parents divorced, and he had with his mother yu move in Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod).
In 1981 Nemtsov graduated from the Radiophysics Faculty of Gorky State University. He worked at the Gorky Research Institute of Radio Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the direction of his uncle, the famous scientist Eydman Vilena.
"It's really a talented physicist," - said about him later Nobel Prize winner Vitaly Ginzburg. Nemtsov - author of more than 60 scientific papers on quantum physics, thermodynamics, acoustics.
In the late 1980s, Nemtsov became active in the environmental movement, fighting against the construction of the Gorky atomic stations of heat supply. In 1990 he was elected deputy of the RSFSR. In 1991, he became a confidant of Boris Yeltsin in the Nizhny Novgorod region during the presidential elections in Russia. "When President DepFork him his confidant in the Nizhny Novgorod region, Nemtsov did not receive a voucher for a personal car in the city lived in a studio apartment with her mother, "- says Ivan Rybkin, chairman of the State Duma from 1994 to 1996.
In December 1991, Yeltsin appointed Nemtsov, head of the Nizhny Novgorod Region Administration.
Large-scale reforms in the area began in 1992, when economist Grigory Yavlinsky and "Epicenter" led them to offer the young head of the development strategy of the region of Nizhny Novgorod region - "Nizhny Novgorod prologue." "There's all the former administration fled after the coup, and he needed help," - says Yavlinsky.
As governor, Nemtsov met with Yegor Gaidar and Anatoly Chubais, a former deputy chairman of the SPS knows Gozman: Gaidar and Chubais traveled to Nizhny Novgorod region, where small-scale privatization was carried out as a pilot project; Nemtsov is enthusiastic about this initiative, professional relationship gradually moved into deep personal. In the property business went offices, cargowiki and the means of production, auctions were held live, Nizhny Novgorod recalls the journalist, confidant Nemtsov governor elections in the State Duma Nina Zvereva. Nemtsov give business loans without interest, there were investments, he also agreed with the European banks safeguards in 200 processing plants were built.
Nizhny Novgorod region went first to the regional bond issuance. This solved the problem of money, the loan was later paid in full. "The most important problems were galloping inflation and increasing unemployment. In these circumstances, it is very difficult to protect the population ", - said Yavlinsky. According to him, they came up with a special loan to the proceeds of which were purchased oil and lubricants (POL). POL became a reserve, which in conditions of very rapid inflation allows you to save the invested funds - an area even traded these lubricants with the neighbors. "Different systems of social indicators that will allow to keep from sliding into poverty, large populations, the first system was introduced were used one ofKPA during registration, in addition to all the private entrepreneurs were guaranteed protection on behalf of the administration of the region ", - lists Yavlinsky.
When Rybkin became chairman of the State Duma, Nemtsov came to him with the head of the Gorky Automobile Plant Nikolai Pugin and began to speak, it is important to keep the plant. "But it was too models were not so hot - says Rybkin. - They proposed the creation of a small car and name it in honor of Yeltsin - "GAZ-el."
"Nizhny Novgorod was then the best region of Russia, there was a feeling that we are in this cauldron and cook new Russian" - said Zverev. She also recalls Nemtsov as a "talented Prodrive" all his projects: "In 1993, Margaret Thatcher came to Lower. When you open a new path from the bottom to Dzerzhinsk, he put on the hood of a glass of vodka, and the car drove at a speed of 80 kilometers per hour - the task was not to spill, to show the quality of the roads. "
In December 1995, Nemtsov was elected for a second term, winning with a score of 58.37%. "Then came to him the disappointment: the firstcoffins after the first Chechen campaign, he took it as a great tragedy, and the Kremlin's mistake. Nemtsov arranged on the square Gorky children's funeral from the Lower, collected signatures for the abolition of war in Chechnya, which led to intense anger Yeltsin "- said Zverev. In 1996, the Germans gathered a million signatures against the war in Chechnya: "I downloaded folder in the" Gazelle "and brought to Moscow. He left the "Gazelle" on Vasilyevsky Spusk, pulled out a wad of signature sheets and went to the Kremlin. "
In March 1997, Nemtsov was appointed first deputy prime minister of Russia. He and Deputy Prime Minister Anatoly Chubais became once called young reformers. Yeltsin later recalled, he came to the decision to call Nemtsov in Moscow: "I came to Nizhny Novgorod, where he was governor. Many we spoke with him, then I shook the enterprises, shops, who met and realized that attitude is good. The man immediately clear, energetic, clever, so it is necessary to raise it. This is generally my principle in the selection of personnel. Man is promoted to the new position until it is up to the post a little dorofrom".
In his autobiography, the first Russian president said that the Germans were "promised by the government to ensure his appearance completely different resource confidence. And a completely different political climate in the country. By the way, none of the young categorically do not want to go either to the government or to the Kremlin. All active resisted ... Chubais almost yelled at Boris: "If you're so smart, we criticize, so take over at least part of the responsibility." But the Germans quietly went home. Well, the hard-nosed character ... Perhaps, in my like ", - Yeltsin recalled. As a result, Nemtsov has persuaded the government to the president's daughter Tatyana Dyachenko.
In Nemtsov government oversaw the social block, housing and utilities and construction, natural monopoly and anti-monopoly policy. Yeltsin, in an interview to "Moscow News" in 2003 told how the initiative Nemtsov, he signed a decree on holding a public competition among private firms who carried out public procurement. "In government, he was among the mainstream, almost all of his initiatives were supported, as it wouldon the side of the majority ", - says the former Minister of Labour and Social Development Oksana Dmitrieva. Yevgeny Gontmakher, a former head of the Department of Social Development of the government staff, said that they worked together on pension reform: "We went to Chile and studied their reform. Nemtsov really set about trying to enter the funded part. I watched as he tried to start the reform of the electric power, tried to enter the market relations in the oil and gas industry, but it did not work. "
From April to November 1997, while remaining deputy prime minister Boris Nemtsov served as Minister of Fuel and Energy. As such, Nemtsov headed the board of state representatives of "Gazprom" board and proclaimed policy of de-monopolization of the gas industry. He prepared for Yeltsin's decree "On the main provisions of the structural reforms in the spheres of natural monopolies." It proposed to liberalize the monopoly of just four - the electricity, gas industry, railways and communications, strictly distinguishing between competitive and monopolistic activities.
Nemtsov initiated key decisions on the return of state control over the energy sector, in particular, over the "Gazprom", says Boris Nadezhdin (he worked in the vice-premier). "Gazprom" at the time was made an independent company, did not pay taxes, in addition, the government has discovered the secret archives of the agreement, which allowed the concern (they led Vyahirev) for a little money to buy state-owned stake of its shares, said the politician. According to him, Nemtsov sought cancellation of the contract, went to President Yeltsin was against Prime MinisterViktor Chernomyrdin - comes from "Gazprom".
The famous speculator George Soros in an interview with The Guardian in 2000, recalled how the Germans did not let Boris Berezovsky in "Gazprom". In June 1997, Soros Berezovsky invited to Sochi to meet with Chernomyrdin, and back to Moscow took his American plane, "On the way he said that Chubais and Nemtsov supported his candidacy. I do not believe it and asked himself Nemtsov. That's about it for the first time heard. "Over my dead body," - he responded. "
The name is associated Nemtsov almost the only honest privatization deal of the 1990s. A blocking "Svyazinvest" in 1997 was sold for an unprecedented amount of $ 1.875 billion to a consortium of investors led by Vladimir Potanin and Soros. Later, Soros called this the worst investment of his life. "I remember very well how you burned his reputation, breast standing against attempts B. and G. [Boris Berezovsky and Vladimir Gusinsky] grab yourself" Svyazinvest ", which cost you a career - when then Yeltsin told you that" tired protect you " - I wrote on this inKhodnev in his blog politician Vladimir Milov.
Nemtsov has contributed in the establishment of mobile communications in Russia. In the summer of 1998 as a deputy prime minister, who was responsible for telecom, he issued an order to supplement the license for the construction of the network GSM standard, issued by the company "VimpelCom" (the owner of the network "Beeline") - the company has received additional frequencies. This allowed her to compete with another pioneer of the market - "Mobile TeleSystems" (MTS) - the then deputy director of "VimpelCom" Nikolai Pryanishnikov said in 2000 that, do not be orders of Nemtsov, prices in the capital market of cellular communication would be a half times higher and the number of subscribers - in the lower half.
Among Nemtsov reform were those on which it was decided to laugh, one of them - an attempt to transplant officials to "Volga". Nadezhdin said that at the time of the reform of the ad has accumulated $ 20 thousand. To change their old "Volga" on foreign car, but the Germans told him that he would have to buy a new "Volga". As a loyal officer, Nadezhdin went to the plant in Nizhny Novgorod regionWhere he collected a beautiful car, which from the "Volga" was the only body and stuffing - on foreign cars. Went around the car at exactly the accumulated $ 20 thousand., Nadezhdin said. But Moscow did not get the car: some technical difficulties prevented the reliable connection of the body of domestic and international mechanisms, explains policies - in the car all the time dropped the rear axle. It took three trips Nadezhdin the factory before a car has become reliable. Many officials also obey instructions and move on "Volga", recalls Nadezhdin. Nemtsov himself traveled in a car of the same brand with the mechanism of the "Mercedes". But it lasted long, the idea has not caught on.
Nemtsov and Nadezhdin were dismissed from the government at the same time - after the 1998 default was dismissed Sergei Kiriyenko government. The office of dismissed officials went a little man in a black suit with a group of physicians, Nadezhdin, he explained that according to officials of dismissal from the Soviet era, many became ill, said the source. Nadezhdin Nemtsov and after firing went on humpbackbus stop in the center of Moscow, where for a long time, knocking helmets, protesting miners. Having informed the protesters that they "reach out, and they were fired," former officials with the miners drank vodka and parted as friends, Nadezhdin said.
Nemtsov recalled that Yeltsin asked him to stay, but Nemtsov himself did not want to be in the new government a black sheep.
Yeltsin acknowledged that saw Nemtsov his possible successor. However, rejected the candidacy because he was sure that voters do not support the right to choose. Nemtsov himself spoke of it this way: "Indeed, Yeltsin was at one time wanted me to be a successor. After all, I was a successful governor who managed something useful to do in Lower: 2,000 km paved roads, rebuild the temple, secured housing for the military. And this is the reason so many rankings. And he fell because my arrival in Moscow was under the banner of "gangster capitalism Disassemble!" This was the slogan of the struggle against the oligarchs. Then oligarchy began contact information war of annihilation, and since Berezovsky and Gusinsky owned by leading Russian TV channelsand, with the help of information technology have destroyed my ranking, and that's the whole story. Then even the oligarchs supported Tatyana Dyachenko, daughter of Boris Yeltsin and Yeltsin's inner circle, in particular the head of his administration, Valentin Yumashev. It was then called in one word - "Family".
In 1998, the policy has created a movement "Young Russia" was incorporated in August 1999 in the block "Union of Right Forces" (SPS). SPS in the elections of 1999-2000 put forward the slogan: "Putin - the presidency, Kiriyenko - the State Duma. Young should be! "
Nemtsov and Vladimir Putin personally supported. "I believe that Russia is to elect a new president, honest, physically strong and responsible. I am convinced that the next president should be Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin. If now he did not wring his hands and feet well-known people, then I am sure he has all the chances to have voted for it. At least, I will fully support it, "- he said at a debate on the radio station" Echo of Moscow "November 27, 1999.
PCA was held in the State Duma, and the Germans began forDeputy chairman of the lower house of parliament.
Nemtsov had a reputation as an absolutely honest man, everyone knew that he could trust any money, and it is in an environment where not all behave indicates Gozman. According to him, leading political SPS advice Nemtsov managed to do so, the party maintained its independence from sponsors, introduced a rule that none of them could not finance it by more than 10% of its budget - while still SPS willingly sacrificed, it was not dangerous.
As a deputy, Nemtsov has continued to speak out against the war in Chechnya. In 2000, in Nazran, he and a group of other deputies signed a protocol of five points, which indicated that there is no military solution to the problem, so you should start peace talks, which "will involve the people elected by the people." "The main aim of all the efforts we believe the creation of conditions for the return of refugees to eradicate terrorism and banditry", - Nemtsov said.
SPS faction in the State Duma was the smallest, but its influence was great - it would have been impossible without the participation of its leadersWhich was Nemtsov says Gozman. Nemtsov was able to gather professional staff, people working in the unit fractions - in particular Nadezhdin, agrees former spokesman Nemtsov Lily Oak. In addition, Nemtsov bore the 70% percent of the public activity of all fractions: unlike many, he willingly appeared before television cameras and was able to do it, Oak explains.
Nemtsov was a professional public politician, routine work did not like was the "man-fireworks" - he had a lot of ideas, but they were embodied, if there were people ready to implement them, said Oak. He liked to seem "lightweight", but in fact it was not so, says Gozman: before you sit with a relaxed view at a cabinet meeting and ask supposedly random questions, it is seriously preparing, requested a number of documents and consulted with experts.
Nemtsov wary of Putin, but during his first term as president was forced to show loyalty, obedience to party discipline and the position of Chubais and Gaidar, said Oak. PAfter losing the SPS in the parliamentary elections of 2003 and after the departure of the party Chubais, Nemtsov's position became more and more rigid, and after unsuccessful for the party elections in 2007, he finally joined the opposition, she said.
Gozman recalls how the PCA has ceased to exist. In November 2008, a decision on the participation of the organization in the Kremlin project "just cause" (PD) was adopted at the last congress. Then, the PCA was to unite with the "Democratic Party of Russia," Andrei Bogdanov and "Civil Force" Mikhail Barshchevsky, although the parties, both organizations felt "spoylerskimi". It was the only alternative to the dissolution, which was proposed by the authorities of the PCA: the party had serious financial problems. Positions Nemtsov and Gozman, who later became one of three co-chairs of PD, while diametrically diverged. The Congress Gozman - Acting Chairman of the Union of Right Forces - urged supporters use this chance to the authorities. Nemtsov, has suspended membership in the party soon after the failed election, came to the Congress with a call to preserve the ATP and the announcement that the districtwas funding. On the question of delegates who exactly will finance the party, Nemtsov refused to answer, saying only that the question of Russian businessmen. As a result, 90% of the Congress supported the proposal to participate in the PD, says Gozman.
In December 2008, the Germans entered the presidium of the political council and the "Solidarity" movement created by the opposition.
In the same year, together with Nemtsov Milov has prepared a large-scale report on criticism of Putin in the president's office and the Prime Minister of Russia. The report for the first time popular were told about the business of Putin's friends. "It is now all know about who are Timchenko and Rothenberg, and then the enthusiast of this anti-corruption theme was you. You are the first brought this issue into the mainstream in a way that all talked about it, "- writes about Nemtsov Milov.
In July 2009, the Germans led the headquarters of the "Solidarity" for elections to the Moscow City Duma. All candidates on the motion was denied registration. Germans continued the political struggle in 2010, he and his ex-Premiersth Russian Mikhail Kasyanov, politicians Milov and Vladimir Ryzhkov announced the creation of the opposition coalition "For Russia without arbitrariness and corruption." Built on the basis of her political party to participate in the presidential and parliamentary elections it was established in December 2010 under the name of People's Freedom Party (Parnas). In June 2012, Parnas has teamed up with the Republican Party of Russia Ryzhkov, to restore the registration of the Ministry of Justice, and Nemtsov was one of the co-chairs of the RPR-Parnas.
December 16, 2010 in the TV program "Conversation with Vladimir Putin", the then head of government answered the questions that he has selected. After reading the question of an unknown author, "What actually want to Nemtsov, Ryzhkov, Milov and so on?", The Prime Minister said: "Money and power, what they still want ?! At one time they pouraganili in 90 years dragged along with Berezovsky and those who are now in prison, of which we have today remembered [Mikhail Khodorkovsky], a lot of billions. "
In January 2011, Nemtsov filed a lawsuit in the Moscow City Court to Putin about the protection of honor anddignity for libel. In February, the claim was rejected because, according to the court, "Nemtsov names, Ryzhkov, Milov and eating is not as proper names, but only a household name in the meaning of these names to refer to a certain class of politicians."
Nemtsov was one of the main leaders of the protest rally on Bolotnaya Square and Sakharov Avenue in 2011-2012. "Our rally requirements: the immediate withdrawal of false choices. Deputies, if they believe that they are the people must pass credentials. They are not members, they are thieves climbed way to the Duma, and no one to believe them not to be "- he said at a rally on Bolotnaya Square on 10 December.
"In Yaroslavl in summer 2013 there was the arrest of the national mayor Eugene Urlashova was very high protest activity, on the eve of elections to the regional Duma to decide who will go as a leader of the opposition tried to find all sorts of local candidates, including local oligarchs and their was not found, so it was logical appearance of Boris Nemtsov, "- says presents tedatel regional department of the Progress Party Andrei Alexeev.
They arrived in August 2013 and proposed the Party of December 5 and the "People's Alliance" to form a coalition and go together to the polls, topped the list of Nemtsov and a total of three games scored candidates for all districts, Alexeyev said.
"There was a serious struggle, the advantage was on the side of the authorities, we have earned one seat, and he went to Boris Nemtsov. No one believed that it will work in the region, thought that he will give the mandate, but his position was that he would stay. It surprised many - was initially very skeptical, but eventually many changed attitude toward him. His commitment he made ", - said Alekseev.
Nemtsov was investigating the activities of officials of Yaroslavl, results are regularly published on Facebook on your page, some of them reported to the federal publication. Two senior officials of Yaroslavl - the vice-governor Alexander Senin and head of the regional health department Sergey Vundervald - resigned after revelations Nemtsov.The policy has found out that the wife of the first - the curator of the regional health and pharmacy department - working in the pharmaceutical industry, and her company won the regional competition for the purchase of medicines. Nemtsov has appealed to the Investigation Committee, after which the governor of the region Sergei Yastrebova summoned to the Kremlin, and he fired Senin, resulted from Nemtsov messages.
"Nemtsov who has spoiled many a career in the field. He did everything clearly, "- said RBC's deputy Municipality of Yaroslavl, deputy chairman of the Communist Party faction Anton Golitsyn. Nemtsov investigate excessive budget spending on health care for about a year ago, says the head of the project "Municipal scanner" Michael Muggles, "He asked me to help check for the purchase cost of medicines for cancer patients after Senin again asked obldumy additional funds."
Later Nemtsov accused of conflict of interest and of the governor of the Yaroslavl region, demanding his resignation, telling Muggles. Daughter Yastrebova Elena works in a pharmaceutical company "R-Pharm", Which supplies medical preparations in the region, particularly for cancer patients, at inflated prices, he told the newspaper "Kommersant". During 2014 Nemtsov put forward against the governor several charges: informed about the presence of undeclared Yastrebova estates worth 15-23 million rubles. Muzhev in the local village, as well as the purchase of an apartment for her daughter in a townhouse in the New Riga.
But it was not possible to achieve resignation Yastrebova Nemtsov. Hawks asked RBC whether it useful for anti-corruption activities in the region considered Nemtsov replied curtly: "Yes."
"Everyone has to decide for himself himself, he is willing to risk or not. All I can say about myself. I am happy to be able to tell the truth, be yourself and do not kowtow to wretched, thieving authorities. Freedom is expensive, "- wrote Nemtsov on his Facebook page two months ago.