Zolotov's army: why and how the National Guard is created

National Guard headed by Viktor Zolotov, conceived to deal with the protests, eventually got a lot of other functions: from private security to anti-terrorism. Its powers will overlap with the FSB.
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What created the National Guard under?

The National Guard is created based on the Interior Ministry, President Vladimir Putin said at a meeting with Interior Minister Vladimir Kolokoltsev, commander of Interior Ministry troops, Viktor Zolotov, Federal Drug Control Service Director Viktor Ivanov and First Deputy Director of the Federal Migration Service Ekaterina Egorova. He headed by the National Guard under Zolotov. According to the decree of the president, his position is now officially called the "Director and Chief of the Federal Service of the troops of the National Guard." According to the status it is equivalent to the federal minister and joined the Russian Security Council.

Presidential press secretary, Dmitry Peskov, in a conversation with RBC noted that the National Guard will be subordinated directly to Putin.

As the presidential decree, the National Guard is to maintain public order, to fight terrorism and extremism, to participate in the territorial defense of the country, to protect important state objects and special loads, helping FSB on the border and enforce the legislation in the sphere of arms trafficking and field castnoy security activity.

"One of the most important tasks, which gave the Guards, - the fight against organized crime, as a separate line in the Interior Ministry, it has been lost since 2008 - since the abolition UBOP. Such an agency could not exist without the operational component, and it is in the BB is - they have their own intelligence, "- says deputy chairman of the Duma's security committee, Alexander Hinstein.

RBC source in the presidential administration said that the National Guard under the work will help to centralize a number of separate power units, belonged until now to the structure of the Ministry of Interior. This service will make it easier to control, he added RBC.

Projects on creation of the National Guard for about four years, said political analyst Yevgeny Minchenko. Initially it was assumed that the first and foremost at the National Guard will be protective function (why its leaders and other main guard President): combating riots, prevention and liquidation of mass disorders. But in the end the National Guard under expanded functions, which means more hardware victory EvilsStarted, says the expert.

Who will go to the Guards?

Internal forces are converted into the National Guard under the troops. They will include all the special forces, according to a presidential decree.

The total number of Ministry of Internal Affairs in 2015 was little more than a million people. Of these, about 170 thousand. Were internal forces that have been deployed almost throughout the country.

The document says that in the new Federal Service of troops of the National Guard are included units of SWAT and riot police, Special Operations Center Rapid Reaction Force and aviation security and observation technologies, in particular the Centre for special purpose private security Interior Ministry, Interior Ministry, which supervises the observance of the legislation in the field of trafficking in arms and in the field of private security activities, as well as the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Security", which provides services for the paramilitary and the physical protection and the installation and maintenance of security equipment.

Creation of the National Guard does not require an increase in staffing levels, not to require an increase in the unit, and anything else, said dogCove, answering the question of RBC.

Since all training facilities and landfills will be transferred from the MIA to the National Guard under the costs of the budget will be minimal, says RBC source in law enforcement. With this opinion agrees chairman of the Police Trade Union Association of Russian Alexei Lobarev. According to him, the training base will be simply transferred to the National Guard, the new facilities will not have to build.

Earlier, the Interior Ministry has repeatedly complained about the lack of funding. In the discussion in the State Duma of the budget for 2016. Deputy Interior Minister Alexander Mahoney noted that the department lacks 41 billion rubles. Lack of funds caused by, in particular, reductions in the department and payments to employees who leave the ranks of the Interior Ministry.

According Hinstein no secret that in the Interior Ministry internal troops did not receive the required amount of funds for modernization, to provide technical facilities, etc. Now, this situation will change. The independence of the National Guard under can make life easier, including the Ministry of Interior, since the Ministry of high current deficit -. More than 120 billion rubles, says Hinstein.

then that Viktor Zolotov?

In May 2014, Putin appointed Zolotova First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs, the commander in chief of Interior Ministry troops, after six months, he worked as First Deputy Commander of explosives. Prior to his appointment to the Ministry of Internal Affairs Zolotov 13 years worked in the Federal Guard Service (FSO), and was the head of the Presidential Security Service. Manage the Presidential Guard Zolotov was appointed by Putin after his arrival in the Kremlin in 2000.

Putin knew Zolotov from the 1990s - then Zolotov guarded St. Petersburg Mayor Anatoly Sobchak, Putin, who was a deputy. As reported by the "Novaya Gazeta", he began his career gold in the 9th Directorate of the KGB, which was later converted to FSO. Zolotov Graduated from the Law Institute and the Academy of the General Staff.

"The president and commander in chief does not assign people to lead the security forces, without experiencing them personal trust", - Peskov said, answering the question whether there is a special trust to the Kremlin Zolotov.

This is a serious hardware enhancement Zolotov, he became among the most influential forcesHovik, said Minchenko. The expert recalled that the growing influence of immigrants from the FSO has been evident in recent years, and especially in recent months, several former colleagues Zolotova occupied important positions in the Ministry of Internal Affairs after his conflict with the FSB, and the governor of the Tula area was Alex Dyumin. Close to this group, and not so long ago led the Krasnodar region Veniamin Kondratyev.

Place the main protective agencies are not vacant - for this role and claim the FSB and FSO, but the new structure headed by Zolotov, precisely because of its novelty can be more confidence in the mandate, he emphasized in a conversation with RBC analyst Mikhail Vinogradov.

As the National Guard under will interact with the FSB?

While it is difficult to say whether to change the powers of other services and departments in connection with the advent of the National Guard, said the sand on the question of whether the powers do not overlap with the National Guard under the FSB and other agencies. "We can confidently say that definitely need to improve the legal and regulatory framework will need to make some changes in the laws, and we are not talking about one or two of the lawx ", - said the president's press secretary.

National Guard functions would overlap with the functions of the Federal Security Service, points out the head of the Moscow police Mikhail Pashkin union. In a conversation with RBC, he noted that the fight against terrorism is now legislated as a prerogative of the FSB. To connect to the National Guard under counter-terrorism, it needs to change the law.

However, it is unclear why the new structure should duplicate the powers of the FSB, stressed Pashkin. "Does this mean that the FSB bad fight against terrorism? And whether in addition to the security functions in the National Guard under still operational and search, without which it is impossible to fight terrorism? While there are more questions than answers, "- Pashkin said. "If the National Guard under the power will only perform tasks that are put in front of her Ministry of Internal Affairs, FSB, customs and others, the problems should not occur", - added Pashkin.

FSB Major General retired Vasily Eremenko believes that the National Guard took over the function of internal troops will carry out large-scale operations in the country. "Ecand the FSB is struggling with individual, holding terrorists that train attack in the subway or train station, the new army unit will face a major terrorist groups, such as, for example, banned in Russia LIH group "- says Eremenko in conversation with RBC.

Who else has a guard?

The closest Russian example is the creation of the National Guard in Kazakhstan. In April 2014, President Nursultan Nazarbayev decided to convert the internal troops of the National Guard. In addition to renaming, little has changed: the new service has remained subordinate to the Interior Ministry, headed by its last leader of the Internal Troops, General Ruslan Zhaksylykov.

In 2015, in an interview with the Russian newspaper "Red Star" Zhaksylykov acknowledged that fighters for the National Guard under fixed basically the same problem that the military explosives and Kazakhstan. Among these obligations: protection of public order, maintenance of goods, border guards to help, participate in special operations of other law enforcement agencies, escorting prisoners and other tasks. Similar functions are performedT National Guard in some other CIS countries such as Kyrgyzstan.

The second type of military forces on the territory of the former Soviet Union, known as the National Guard - a service for the protection of high-ranking officials and the President himself, a kind of presidential regiment. According to this principle works in the National Guard under Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. In Georgia, in addition to this, the National Guard deals with military mobilization: Given reservists and assistance in the conduct of an appeal.

National Guard under Ukraine also formed on the basis of the internal troops, but has far greater powers. It performs all of the above functions as a protection of public order and public officials, as well as the mobilization of the organization, carrying out of counter-terrorism measures, and even participate in hostilities.

The term "National Guard" appeared at the initial stage of the French Revolution to designate units to ensure order in the streets of Paris. One of the first at the beginning of the XIX century is the name adopted Americans: US National Guard is equipped with military reservists who perioica l Note mobilized to suppress the riots. One of the last of such cases began to riots in Ferguson in 2014, although there is the government used to support a local Missouri State Guard.