The ban on the import of many food products from the US, EU and other countries will require a sharp leap in the development of domestic agriculture. But this area - is extremely opaque, subject to corruption and is controlled by powerful lobbyists, that of the use of Russian sanctions win. Znak.com tried to learn how to construct a system of state support of Russian agriculture.
State support of the Russian agro-industrial complex - an extremely non-public sphere. For example, on the website of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia July 31, have been published interim data on the allocation of departmental subsidies to regional budgets in the first half of 2014. According to these data, all of the federal budget in the form of subsidies to the regional agricultural industry has been allocated more than 11 billion rubles, the regional budgets have time to learn on average 49% of the money. Of these, 3.643 billion received the regions of the Central Federal District, just over 2.5 billion received Volga, about 1 billion - Southern Federal District and Siberia.
If you look on the website of the Ministry (Committees) Agriculture regional importance in the areas of genderwho taught the maximum subsidy is to find out who they got, it will be possible almost.
On Web sites, departments that received the money to fix the fact of receipt, published innumerable forms that must be filled for their preparation are numerous press releases about how rising agriculture in the region, but specific reports with a list of organizations to which grants were given, there is simply no . In the best case published interim reports on budget implementation, of which the reader can see that as the subsidies for regional livestock has been allocated, for example, 3 million rubles, but who got the money, silent.
For example, open these departmental sites in different regions.
In the Kursk region in the "State Program" section of the website agribusiness committee posted a cheerful text: "At the end of last year, at the 66th session of the UN General Assembly in 2014 was officially declared the International Year of Family Farming ... Meanwhile, in the Kursk region to promote the work of the farmers for a long timeand permanently inscribed among the priorities of the regional administration ... So, 21.7 million rubles of grant and equity beginning farmers and 10.97 million rubles from the family cattle farms has already been spent on the acquisition in 1047 of heads of farm animals, including purchased 205 heads of dairy directions 261 - beef, 581 head of sheep ", but there is no hint of information about who is still received grants.
In the "Animal" touted the company of "guarantor", but no information about what to do with subsidies and not, "Documents" section and available at all.
At about the same degree of information content (albeit with affordable section "Documents", which contains the conditions for obtaining grants, but there is no information about the final recipient) sites have similar departments in the Central Federal District.
The site agro department in the Rostov region, however, the recipients of subsidies information is, however, no specific financial information.
In order to understand,who still received state support in the agricultural sector at the regional level, we have to use search engines. Znak.com decided to find out whether such support is obtained, for example, the company, led by United Russia of the regional legislative assemblies of the main agricultural regions. Formally, it is perfectly legal - deputies in the regions often work on the basis of unreleased and should be able to do business in parallel, even if they consist in the appropriate committee.
So, for example, Sergei Bensler - United Russia, of the Agricultural Committee of the Legislative Assembly of the Altai Territory. Once he was the chairman of the state farm "Basil", after its merger with the company "Land of the Soviets" in zero became CEO was the result of the company "Kolos". Receive state as a result of one of the governor's program "100 + 100" a few years ago, the company was able to Benslera invest about 20 million rubles in the construction of a new cattle-breeding complex for cattle.
Similarly, the situation is in other regions: the United Russia majority of agroShlenov committees of regional legislative assemblies are headed by different farmers. If you type the name of these enterprises in the search engines, we can easily find the press releases that they receive state support.
In the Belgorod region government support, for example, the use of LLC "GC Agro-Belogorye" whose CEO Vladimir Zotov sits in the regional Duma, and ZAO "White Bird" with the CEO - Regional deputy Igor Barschukom. In Bashkortostan, a member of the Agricultural Committee Vadim Zaynullin headed "Industrial Company Region", the deputy Sergey Lobastov - Bashkir Soda Company, Azamat Lutfullin - OJSC "BETO", Vadim Sokolov - SEC "Base" and so on.
The most transparent in terms of information disclosure about who gets the budget money for agro-industrial activities appeared Stavropol region - the site AIC departments have a report on subsidy recipients. However, no specific amounts.
Communist Ivan Bogachev, head of the committee - the chairman of the state farm "Ternovskiy", which is in the registry selhozpredpiyaty receiving state support, his deputy Vasily Mashkin - United Russia, the director of the agricultural enterprises of "spaciousness", it is also on the roster.
The level above the situation becomes even more confusing.
Of the election returns of the State Duma deputies from "United Russia", which is now part of the Committee on Agrarian Policy, we can see that the shares owned by the three farms of United Russia: the millionaire Airat Khairullin, and Alexander Bogomaz Svetlana Maximova and Umahan Umahanov.
Airat Khairullin - owner of holding "Krasny Vostok Agro" and "Edelweiss Group", President of the National Union of Milk Producers, former director of OJSC "Brewing company" Krasny Vostok "."
In this regard, noteworthy looks Khairullina dialogue with Senator Sergei Lisowski in RBC TV in February 2014. In this program, Khairullin says that a high proportion of imports of dairy products does not meet the doctrine of the food security of Russia and criticizes the Ministry of Agriculture of the intention to remove subsidies for milk production.
"There is a serious document, is the food security doctrine, in which we have to provide for themselves by 90 percent milk. Tragically, just private farms are places where formed bestovarnye volumes of milk ... You know the background of this issue, it starts in October 2008. Until that time, in the framework of the national project modern farms were built and milk production increased. But in the future there is a situation where milk producers were fighting for a reduction in purchase prices, forming its profitability at the expense of agricultural ... And, unfortunately, today we have the information that the Ministry of Agriculture this year is no longer subsidize the production of milk. Anyway, January, February and March, one of the farms, most likely, will not receive the subsidy. Although this is a very effective support, and it allows us to really see how much milk is produced ... In all countries of the world from which emanates support? Due to the implementation of the wholesale price of agricultural products provided peasant refund plus money for investment and insproizvodstvo, expanded reproduction. We do this almost no one goes. Not because they are stupid, but because they realize - if they believe that support our agricultural producers should be increased several times ", - says Khayrullin in the program about the problems of the dairy industry Lisovsky, but says nothing, however, about his business interests in this area . At the end of the program, he noted that the market of dairy market regulation abandoned almost everywhere. Current sanctions Khairullin extremely beneficial.
No less profitable they Lisovsky senator with whom talked Khayrullin in the air. Once Lisowski in partnership with Vadim Zolotarev created holding "Mosselprom", which, in particular, actively acted on the poultry market, while the government has reduced the year-on-year quota on import of poultry supply. In the crisis years of 2008-2009 Lisowski became one of the sponsors of the amendments to the Law "On Trade", due to which retail chains have stopped abusing delays in payments and the heaviest hour returned to the supplier of many millions of dollars, but in the end the CPADhu several retailers have refused to buy the "Mosselprom" products. In March 2009, the head of the network X5 Lev Khasis at a press conference almost openly encouraged consumers to buy chicken at the "Cherkizovo" because "they make a quality product, and do not engage in political games." After a while, "Cherkizovo" bought "Mosselprom".
If you try to follow the further adventures of the same "Mosselprom" and the companies included in this large holding, you can come across, for example, on an interesting story about how CJSC "Mosselprom" in 2012 to sue the Tula Region subsidy the government on poultry production, challenging in court the refusal to grant it and to recover as a result of a state 42.8 million rubles. According to open sources, receive subsidies and other large enterprises of the holding - for example of "Kursk poultry."
Get support from the state itself The group of companies "Cherkizovo". If you look at the annual report of the Company for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013Ode, from it you can see that for one financial year, the company SC "Cherkizovo" received subsidies only at the level of local authorities (ie without taking into account the regional level) in the amount of 24.793 million US dollars. Gross profit for the same year amounted to 368,447,000 US dollars.
As an example, another company from among the leaders in the agricultural business in Russia and see the annual "Rusagro" holding account. For fiscal year 2013 net profit of the holding company amounted to 3.2 billion rubles. It is only in the meat segment, the company received in 2013 while government grants in the amount of 287 million rubles (support pork producers) in the agricultural sector - 281 million rubles (cereals and sunflowers). In total, according to the consolidated report, last year the company received more than 4 billion rubles of subsidies in full accordance with Russian legislation.
Similarly, things and other giants in the industry. They are also beneficial food sanctions.
Gleb Kuznetsov political consultants explained Znak.com, that agro-bicarried lobby is one of the strongest non-public and in Russia, including due to the fact that agro-industrial enterprises are considered entities, not only the economy but also the social sphere.
"It should be understood that the present system, developed in agriculture, - this is the main threat to the country's food security. Deputies and senators of all levels work mainly with the "agricultural barons" - large enterprises, and not with the farmers, not allowing the latter to develop, as the Giants pulled over most of the subsidies. There are obviously corrupt in history when, for example, to visit the Voronezh and Lipetsk region, you see endless fields of wheat, and then you will know that the region urgently allocated for the elimination of the consequences of the terrible droughts or floods. At the same time the non-chernozem regions receive less subsidies - such volumes Moscow "not interested." In fact, as soon as someone at the federal level, interested in what is happening and will require a report on subsidies, large enterprises are starting to actually blackmail the government threat of social revolt. The BBCsuch devices in the industry and I do not believe the argument that due to the current kontrsanktsy we revive Russian agriculture, "- said Kuznetsov.
The head of the International Institute of Political Expertise Evgeny Minchenko said that agribusiness lobby consists of many parts.
At the federal level, "Agricultural Bank", for example, is associated with people from the special services - chairman of the works there Dmitry Patrushev, son of ex-FSB director Nikolai Patrushev. At the regional level come into force regional lobbyists, lobbying is parallel regarding buying land, land acquisition and so on. Finally, lobbyists and work in the legal field, where the major agricultural producers, wholesalers and retailers are trying to change every market in your side, being covered in words the interests of farmers, said Minchenko. The expert also notes that protective measures are often a tool to combat domestic and international players.
"On subsidies level of closure, of course, is high, but because of the national project" Agriculture "was still the most mustachesuccessfully ", - said Minchenko.