One and a half weeks ago, on December 15, the Central Bank announced the reorganization of the third large private bank - Promsvyazbank. But unlike the owners of FC Otkritie and Binbank, Dmitry Ananiev, co-owner and predpravleniya of Promsvyazbank, did not ask for the bank's rehabilitation, and he categorically disagrees with the decision of the regulator. Last Friday, the banker left Russia, and gave an interview on Sunday via Skype.
- From what country do you now give this interview?
- It does not matter.
- Why did you leave Russia?
- I planned to go on New Year's Eve for a long time, I left on December 22nd. And taking into account the last four months in the mode of unregulated work and hassle, I had heart problems. I planned to undergo examination both in Russia and abroad. Last week also added: the business that I created 22 years, everything, it is no more. But I do not agree with how it was covered in the media - it looked like an escape. And I did not run away.
I, unlike many colleagues, did not make any statements asking for help. I never wrote a statement asking to sanitize the bank through the consolidation fund. The bank was solvent, and there was enough liquidity.
- On Friday, December 15, the statement of the deputy chairman of the Central Bank Vasily Pozdyshev was distributed, which says that the bank disappeared credit files worth 109 billion rubles. Approximately the same amount the bank financed through its repo deals its own subordinated liabilities. It was also said about the deals on redemption of the bank's shares from pension funds. In addition, I know that some of the employees had mail accounts deleted. How did it happen?
- Let the law enforcement bodies understand - it was or was not. Now it's the most convenient, to create noise and to maximize the amount of losses, and to absolve ourselves of the responsibility for the decision to introduce an interim administration.
Vasily Anatolyevich Pozdyshev, like one of the supervisors of the supervisory block, already has so many powers and responsibilities. He and media manager, able to deploy mass baiting, and he gives estimates in advance who did what, who fled, and who did not. Let these powers remain with law enforcement. And then the Central Bank's statements are elevated to the rank of evidence. The Central Bank does not have such powers. If they have data, they can form a request to law enforcement. All this takes time. And they immediately form a negative agenda. And so the regulator has enormous powers: he writes music himself, and he listens to himself in the hall, conducts himself, and claps himself. Even Vasily Anatolievich begins to evaluate what happened: let him file applications with the law enforcement agencies, they will be dealt with there.
- Tell us, what happened recently? For Promsvyazbank there was a situation of 50 to 50, and there was no clear decision on it until the last weeks, when the situation sharply turned towards the consolidation fund.
- This question should be asked the supervisory block of the Central Bank. For me, these events were a surprise, I did not expect that such a decision would be made, and in such short terms. And I'm sure this is a wrong decision. And that the events that took place in the last two weeks have already inflicted damage on one of the best private banks in the country. He was in many respects the best - one of the best banks in international business, the bank of the first choice among private banks, he was the best bank in terms of working with small and medium-sized businesses. The bank had the best branch and regional network, there were many good technological and digital solutions. The bank was created 22 years ago from scratch, and became a leader in many areas. How now all this will work? This is a big question.
The decision on the bank was made in two weeks, it was transferred to the Consolidation Fund in emergency mode, when it would seem that all the alarms and information attacks are already over, and before that the dialogue with the supervisory block lasted for two years. This decision, in my opinion, is highly controversial. And if earlier it seemed to me that information attacks on the bank were organized by competitors, now I have a picture: here there was some influence and participation of a number of leading employees of the Central Bank.
In October and November I met with the Chairman of the Central Bank Elvira Nabiullina. Feeled and trust and support, felt and humane attitude. What happened and how I managed to convince the leader by December 12th, for me is still a mystery. I think that this, unfortunately, is a big trouble for us. Very sorry.
I think that the new mechanism of reorganization gives the Central Bank too much authority: it is simultaneously a regulator, an appraiser, and a supervisory block, and at the same time it is now a business player, one of the largest. In these conditions, even those private banks that remain will be compelled to compete with the regulator. The new sanation mechanism, like the previous, provides for very large funding from the state. The question of the return of these funds is on the agenda - will they be returned at all? I think the current members of the rehabilitation are not exactly planning to give this money. Although the mechanism, of course, will still be checked by time - I am a person, of course, interested, it is difficult for me to objectively evaluate. But still I think that the costs will be much greater in comparison with the previous mechanism of sanitation. Although he, it must be admitted, is also unsuccessful.
- What negotiations did you conduct with the Central Bank? Have any agreements been reached and why did they fall apart?
- I was not notified, and I did not have a clear understanding of what was the Trigger. I took it for myself as a blow in the back. This is an ultimatum - to set the task of creating, within three days, huge reserves for the bank. Punched all the standards, which was the basis for the introduction of the interim administration.
You know, the procedure for communicating with the Central Bank does not provide for fixing any rigid agreements. Each side expects something of its own from the talks and sees its own. I had a clear perception that the bank has at least the time until the middle of next year, and optimally the whole next year, during which we would each month show the profit and result that we promised. We planned that each direction - retail, small and medium business, corporate and financial - would earn 10 billion rubles each. net profit. For the year the bank would have earned slightly more than 40 billion rubles. Cherry on the cake was to be a digital business, which we actively developed. I was sure that the supervisory block hears us and accepts our proposals. That format of negotiations, which arose a couple of weeks ago, was unpredictable for me. Although the regulator promised nothing and did not guarantee. Documents that formalized the end of the audit, and provided us with a certain period of time for solving the problems, we did not have. Those reserves, which we had on the basis of an integrated audit, we could close at the expense of the bank's income. For this, there was no need to take such a tough decision. But life does not imply a subjunctive mood, the page is inverted. Promsvyazbank is on sanation. For me it is a regrettable fact. And although a significant part of the team will continue to work in the bank, many business ideas are no longer being implemented. In the hands of officials, even talented, many initiatives can not be realized.
- Do you know how the votes were distributed regarding the future fate of the bank among the heads of the Central Bank?
- No, I do not know.
- It is clear that you fought for the bank, and in many ways ...
"We were not fighting for the bank, we fought, among other things, for the clients to continue their work calmly." We fought off all information attacks. But after the last attack last Friday, I understand that a number of top managers of the regulator have grown adept at these issues, and have become professional PR-managers.
- Do you mean a specific person?
-We know who we are talking about. I had a telephone conversation with Pozdyshev at 4 pm Moscow time on Friday. And after this conversation, literally within an hour, all the media published articles with the statements of the Central Bank. I believe that this pressure on me, the creation of an acute-negative information background. Immediately there was information that I urgently left the country.
- Let's return to the questions about the struggle for the bank in various ways. It is known that you went to the head of the Chechen Republic Ramzan Kadyrov. Appealed to other people. Did you personally or through someone address the president of the country?
- I would not want to comment on this situation. Everything, everything has already ended. There's no point in making it public. The bank has already received a temporary administration - this, of course, is an inglorious story. I did fly to Chechnya to Kadyrov, but on other issues. We have joint projects, including charity projects. Now it has nothing to do with the bank. I went to see him before I received an ultimatum in the form of instructions from the Central Bank. At that time, I did not even expect that this would happen.
- Have you tried to find capital for the bank? Did they look for investors?
- It was a permanent job. If I understood that the regulator is so keen on the idea of sanitizing us, and that we do not have time to show the reality of the profit of 40 billion rubles, we would have been able within a month or two to find an emergency option for raising capital, let even with the big discount. It could be, for example, Arab investors. But the bank suddenly found no place in the banking community. They were put under a knife under the pretext that the Consolidation Fund is a project that will succeed. Extremely questionable, in my opinion, even irresponsible.
I do not want to give now emotional formulations, time will put everything in its place. We have already seen how the Bank of Moscow, Bank Trust, was sanitized. A large amount has already been allocated for the reorganization of FC Otkritie. At Promsvyazbank issues with the regulator were from 50 billion rubles. up to 100 billion rubles. In our perception, this required a more meticulous attitude of the Central Bank within a year and a half or two. Even the next year would already show whether the shareholders are coping or not. The instrument of subordinated loans in general has ceased to exist in recent times - it was publicly destroyed, panic among investors was created. The rating agencies also received extremely negative feedback from the regulator.
- Do you know who can become the future buyer of Promsvyazbank?
- No, I do not know. I think there will be a conversation that the bank will be public, and it will have many investors. I, frankly, do not believe in successful sanitation in this performance. I think that the hole in the bank will be maximized, the problems will be closed at the expense of state money, and the fault is vested in the former owners and management.
- Legislation prohibits owners of sanitized banks to own more than 10% of the shares of operating banks. You and your brother have 52.7% in Renaissance. Have you found a buyer for your package?
- Under the instruction of the Central Bank, we must reduce the share in the bank within 90 days. I am glad that in our time, a month or two ago, we did not decide to merge Promsvyazbank with Renaissance. At that time, both the regulator and the rating agencies collapsed. But something held us right at the level of a flair. But this does not simplify the situation for us now. Private banks will find it very difficult to survive if the same strategy continues.
- By the way, tell me, do you have any thoughts to sue the Central Bank about entering the temporary administration in the bank?
- I'm not the person who wants to go into the zone of judicial conflicts. I am a supporter of compromises, a work process. I'm giving you an interview right now just because I understand that I need to speak out - I can not help reacting to what happened. I must, at least, declare my position.
- Do you have plans to return to the country? You also have another business here.
- Of course have. But what will happen to other businesses I do not understand. The reaction of partners is natural, it is extremely negative. Most business partners are beginning to worry that they may face criminal consequences for themselves. Nobody in our country needs this, no private business wants to be in the epicenter of the explosion. Yes, and no money is not so hassle. I will discuss with my lawyers and lawyers how to proceed further. I went to the examination, and at the same time to rest and spend New Year's holidays calmly, the question is, of course, how much for me now these New Year holidays will last - an unobvious question.
- Did the Central Bank ask the bank to get assets, as it was with FC Opening and Binbank? Are you ready to do this?
- I think we will try to find constructive options.
- Do you still have money in the bank and in what amount?
"I still had money in the bank, but I did not succeed in inflicting final damage, even on what I was saying. But the volume of capitalization is rapidly shrinking, trust is becoming less from the side of business partners. That's even at the level of psychological moments. Well-known PR-manager of the Central Bank, I take off my hat, very skillfully warms up the market, now he can "fill up" any bank, even standing firmly on his feet. It takes several weeks for a person to work. All this can be done at public expense, absolutely irresponsible, telling that this is all for the benefit and improvement of the banking sector. The sector's recovery may eventually end for the private banking sector by a cemetery. And then the atmosphere will be absolutely healthy: silence, calmness, balance, zero entropy and zero entrepreneurial interest. Private banking business is the way either to the cemetery or to the Fund for Consolidation.
- Problem assets of the bank. You recognized then and now that they are. Can you tell us what these assets are and how they were accumulated?
- The economy has not grown in recent years, the risk management in the bank was not the strongest unit, especially in 2008. But it was a working process, we coped with it, we put a lot of effort to return to the best standards, relatively speaking, Alfa- bank, whose standards sometimes turn customers away. We tried to find the middle ground. But now it does not matter, we understand that the size of the discrepancy between our assessment and the CBR estimate is approximately 50 billion rubles. If the figures are 300-400 billion rubles, it will again look like "Trust", "Opening", "Bank of Moscow". Everything will become known with time.
In my opinion, the bank was shot, the skin was thrown into the Consolidation Fund. It is impossible, of course, to say that they shot at take-off, but the bank functioned normally and steadily. I do not want to wish the Central Bank success in sanation, this decision was made at the state expense. We can only transfer the management of the bank in an understandable and predictable regime.
- Do you plan to continue to do business in the banking sector? I asked Shishkhanov this question after losing Binbank. He then categorically said no. Do you have any plans?
- I am now engaged in business, especially in the New Year's Eve, especially after statements in the press, I can not imagine myself. I am satisfied that all clients of the bank continue to work quietly, all obligations are being fulfilled. Let and delay payments, this occurs within the logic of the interim administration, the bank is now working in the regime of the state savings bank. But what to do in our country further, for me the question is, I will think about this. I would not want to bear the risks and bring additional risks to my family. I have no doubt that I will have to reflect more carefully - the Friday statements made a serious impression on me.