In early July, there have been significant personnel changes in the FSB. President Putin has replaced the head of one of the key units - the Economic Security Service (SES). Place a retired 64-year-old Yuri Yakovlev took Sergei Korolyov, former head of the Internal Security Department. Castling also occurred with a number of key employees.
Armchair SEB head held before Alexander Bortnikov, the current director of the FSB.
Previously, it was special department initiated check in SEB. As a result, he left his post, Major General Viktor Voronin, the leader of the "K". It is responsible for the banking sector, the fight against smuggling and drug trafficking. One of the reasons for the resignation Voronin was the criminal case, where his subordinate Vadim Uvarov was involved. The data at the disposal of RBC, indicate that the interest of law enforcement officers in the FSB staff member may be associated with information protection racket on the facts of transport and logistics companies in the North-West region, including smuggling.
If so, then we are talking about billions of commodity flowsdollars. The mere transport and logistics company ULS Global, which was allegedly linked Uvarov (customs documents of the company were at the disposal of RBC), annually imported goods worth $ 2 billion, says a former employee. This means the potential payments to the budget were to be $ 600-750 million.
A scolding from Putin
Agenda of the meeting of the Government Presidium June 1, 2009, led by the then Prime Minister Vladimir Putin did not promise sensations. The officials were to discuss the federal budget and extra-budgetary funds for 2008, and to approve the strategy of development of light industry up to 2020.
But suddenly we are talking about illegal imports. Prime appeared dissatisfied with the fight against smuggling. "The result in such cases - a landing in jail. Where planting something? "- Was indignant Putin, recalling that a few years ago broke up any customs management, put in charge of Andrei Belyaninov. "So what? A channel as worked and are still working. Vaughn is still one of the markets are products of more than $ 2 billion. So far, nodestroyed, and the owners do not have, "- continued the Prime Minister. Following the meeting, he instructed the FSB and the Interior Ministry to strengthen the fight against smuggling and counterfeiting (fake goods).
After 28 days, the Moscow authorities have closed Cherkizovsky market, the largest distribution center for the sale of clothing and consumer goods. According to police, the market kept 6 ths. Of contraband cargo containers worth $ 2 billion. Soon followed the sale of the asset group AST, co-owner of the Cherkizovsky market, and one of the beneficiaries, Telman Ismailov, for some time left for Turkey.
However, the place of Cherkizovsky market soon took the "Gardener" and shopping center "Moscow", claimed two customs broker and St. Petersburg businessman, importing clothes and shoes. According to RBC interlocutors, there wholesalers carry about contraband goods across the country.
According to RBC representative of the market "Gardener", this information does not correspond to reality. He said that Rospotrebnadzor and other regulatory authorities regularly check the trading platform, irregularities in its operations there. Cromie, the law enforcement monitoring and administration "Gardener". The same says First Deputy General Director of LLC "TC" Moscow "Anguilla Ifraimov, adding that in the case of individual products of dubious sellers administration set itself refers to the customs authorities, the police, the Federal Antimonopoly Service and the Federal Service. Representatives of both platforms emphasize that trade deal with tenants - small and medium businesses.
According to estimates executive director Soyuzlegkoproma (combines domestic enterprises of light industry) Igor Ulyanov, the volume of smuggled goods of light industry in Russia in 2015 could make 0,5-1 trillion rubles. The problem is confirmed by the head of the National Union of shoe Natalia Demidova. Every year, Russia sold no less than 500 million pairs, she says. About 100 million pairs produced in the country, yet 300 million - the official imports. The missing 100 million pairs - the minimum amount of illegal shipments.
"Jerboa" and "overload"
"This earns half of Vyborg pensioners, we is calledI eat them "Tushkanov" - says requested anonymity St. Petersburg businessman, engaged in the import of clothing and footwear. Early in the morning, "jerboa" on private cars cross the Russian-Finnish border. In Finland, they are waiting for the van with 20 tons of goods, which scatter hundreds of cars for two, 100 kg per vehicle. Individuals legally transports goods ostensibly for personal use without paying duties. Staff at the customs post help shuttles to quickly cross the border. On the Russian side of waiting another truck, which unloaded goods. According to the interlocutor of RBC, one day "jerboa" time to make up to three round-trip walker, earning 3 thousand. Rub.
Smugglers mediocre practice more complex schemes. For example, a van with the goods, clothing and electronics legally leaves from a neighboring country. But on the Russian border a driver takes the necessary customs officer a second set of declarations, from which it follows that transports heavy-construction materials - goods subject to lower duties. The inspector misses a car without additional control, X-rayand or inspection. Fura is directed to a customs terminal where customs clearance is to occur.
However, the path of the truck to the warehouse collapses. There disrupted seals, unload clothes and electronics are loaded into the car bricks or rubble, specified in the declaration. Arriving at the customs terminal, wagon easily pass customs clearance. Then again, building materials being taken to the warehouse to replace a new batch of expensive goods. This scheme is called "overload", it is described in the decision to initiate criminal proceedings for non-payment of customs duties against the businessman Dmitry Zarubin of St. Petersburg and its surroundings (copy of the decision is at the RBC).
However, smuggling can be carried out and without any "overload." For example, in March of this year, the FSB officers detained in the port of Ust-Luga container with elite alcohol declared as adhesive sealant. The searches took place in "Kontreyl Logistics North-West", he was arrested by the famous St. Petersburg businessman Dmitry Mihalchenko. And at the end of May - in the same Ust-Luga - investigators found that the partyetskoy clothes described in the declarations as the construction materials. Cargo trailers arrived on a ferry belonging to the Russian-Turkish group ULS Global.
For half a year before at the airport Pulkovo FSB arrested 20 tons of iPhones and other equipment delivered under the guise of picture frames. Searches were then held at the offices of the same ULS Global, and we in the group of customs broker "Broker LLC" seized the press, told RBC source in the company.
How beneficial to contraband?
"On average, payments in the budget for the import in the Russian light industry products make up 30-35% of the cost of the party on the invoice", - said the head of the Center of support of FEA Galina Balandin. However, the figures can vary greatly. According to RBC request of FEA experts Support Center calculated the value of official duties with the Turkish products (auto parts, coffee, furniture, coats, clothing) worth $ 64 thousand. In accordance with the invoice in the transit declaration (goods went through the Baltic states). Get $ 56 thousand., Almost 90%. Another example - Italian clothes price of $ 13 thousand According to the calculations of the legal company Eterna Law, payments.treasury equal to 183 thousand rubles, or $ 3.2 thousand, as at that date -... only 25% of the value of the goods.
According to several interlocutors RBC dealing with delivery of cargoes in the North-West region, the value of the Turkish party clothes and everyday products in a 20-ton truck -. $ 300-500 thousand Thus, the budget necessary to pay $ 90-175 thousand off the wagon..
Betting on the smuggling of significantly lower and they are not tied to invoices continue to sources RBC. For example, for the import of 20-tonner with the same clothes and consumer goods, the importer must pay the $ 45-60 thousand., Regardless of the country of origin. This includes $ 3 thousand duties on goods-cover, $ 10-12 thousand bribes to customs officials, the police and the FSB, the rest -.. The margin of a customs broker.
Shipments to nowhere
ULS Global - large by the standards of the North-West region of the transport and logistics company. It owns eight cargo planes, 350 cars and ferries. Owners Group - Russian businessmen Igor sows and Leonid Kuzmin, as well as a Turkish citizen Jabrail Karaarslan. As the storyAET former employee of the ULS, the main logistical scheme is as follows: the goods from Turkey, China and European air traffic delivered to Tallinn, there are loaded into trucks, which travel in the Estonian port of Sillamae, and from there by ferry sailing in Ust-Luga, where there is customs clearance.
"Company - under different signs - since the beginning of zero in 2010, imported in Russia up to a thousand trucks per month, now, after the jump course and falling imports, 150-200 cars," - says a former employee of the ULS, requested anonymity.
RBC was able to get acquainted with hundreds of transit declarations lodged on the Estonian customs on goods transported ULS transport in 2012-2015. We are talking about clothes, shoes, coats, electronics and daily commodities Turkish, Chinese and Italian descent. Consignor performed various offshore companies, one of the recipients - St. Petersburg company "Promkomplektimport" owned by Kuzmin and Havronovu (now liquidated). In 2014 and 2015, goods worth a total of $ 24 million, described in almost 200 declarations have been sent to the Russian company "Krona" (INN7804492052), "Hermes" (TIN 7810509386) and "TC Inkar" (TIN 7804492098). However, the first two numbers are not registered in the Unified Register of legal entities, ie such firms never existed. The third (the company with the VAT actually called "Artreyd") was liquidated January 14, 2014.
"If we were talking about one or two declarations, one might assume a banal error in the INN. But if it is a mass phenomenon, probably used some illegal scheme ", - says Chief Financial Officer BMS Law Firm Yury Stepanov. Senior lawyer Herbert Smith Freehills Eremin Sergey recalls that the non-existing company can not pay customs duty. A possible explanation, lawyer continues, that the goods have been brought into Russia at an address other firms, that is, before crossing the border supporting documents have changed.
RBC appealed to the Federal Customs Service with a request to comment on the situation. They reported that unscrupulous participants of foreign economic activity of organizing illegal schemes of goods imported into the territory of the Customs Union by making and replacing tovarosoprovoditelnye and export documents. General Directorate of Anti-Smuggling FCS takes measures to curb these activities and the establishment of all the persons concerned.
RBC also asked to inform the FCS which the goods were imported into Russia on transit declarations specified in the vehicles in certain date (this is the only way to track the substitution of documents). However, Customs found that such information "is limited and can not be sent in the commercial organization."
Co-owner of ULS Igor sow in conversation with the correspondent of RBC said that his company only provides transportation and has no relation to the senders and recipients of goods: "We play the role of a taxi and no more." Deliveries for "Promkomplektimporta" emphasizes sow, were "absolutely transparent and white business", but about the deliveries to non-existent firms businessman is not known.
ULS former employee said that 150-200 wagons monthly imported company in Russia, half of Turkish goods, 30% - Chinese, 20% - evropeyss. The annual cost of supplies, according to his calculations, in excess of $ 2 billion.
Former ULS officer in conversation with RBC assumes that the protection group could provide an operative of the Main Directorate for Combating Smuggling (CABC) of the FCS of Russia Pavel Smolyarchuk and head of the 7th Division (in charge of customs) control "K" SEB FSB Vadim Uvarov. In confirmation of these words, a source close FSB (its role below), RBC has provided e-mails, which were supposedly representatives ULS with Smolyarchuk and Uvarov. In these letters the FSB handed Dmitry Nesterenko, former partner ULS co-owners of a number of projects.
What is governance "K"?
"K" Management is part of the Economic Security Service (SES) FSB. Initially, it is supervised credit and financial sphere, but after the reorganization of the structure of the "K" became managing "H", responsible for the fight against smuggling and drug trafficking. That is why the "K" and is now in charge of customs. In addition, SEB include managing, controlling production ( "P"), transport ("T"), as well as the work of the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Emergency Situations ( "M").
One of the participants wrote a email@example.com address. He calls (called Alexei Marchukov director of the company "LLC Broker") as its employee of a Marchukova, and one of his companies - "Promkomplektimport" (owned Havronovu and Kuzmin). Another recipient, firstname.lastname@example.org, as can be seen from the letters, working with the customs authorities and is married to Oksana Smolyarchuk.
Winner email@example.com address firstname.lastname@example.org warns of impending exit checks on Kingisepp (in its area of responsibility is the Ust-Luga port) and the Baltic Customs, divided other interdepartmental information. A email@example.com (supposedly Vadim Uvarov FSB) reports firstname.lastname@example.org, some of its best companies to temporarily not use, so as not to fall into the danger zone for the internal databases of law enforcement bodies. "Wise analysts recommend - [the company] caravan and BPS - stalled before the good times", - says email@example.com. In addition, it helps solve the problem of law enforcement officers have already started checking firms' Promkomplektimport ".
Igor Havreones told RBC that firstname.lastname@example.org address does not belong to any of ULS staff. Businessman suggests that Dmitry Nesterenko fabricated this conversation, wanting to avenge the owners of the company.
Eliminating a competitor
On the night of September 29, 2015 on the road between Murmansk and St. Petersburg investigators supported by SWAT detained Petersburg businessman, the owner of the boutique Cartier and transport company "Logis Trans" Dmitry Zarubin. Entrepreneur and ten members of his entourage are accused of organizing the supply of smuggled clothing and equipment from Finland's "overdrive" scheme, which became the cause of non-payment of customs duties on 460 million rubles.
Businessman RBC through lawyers that neither he nor his staff were not engaged in the customs declaration of goods. As suggested by Zarubin, the real reason for his arrest - with ULS competition and the desire to co-owners of the company "to squeeze it from the market." It clarifies a source in Zarubin environment, the ULS owners did not like that the businessman carries Finnish goods of Turkish origin: that they wanted to monopolizelogistics and customs clearance of such goods.
In the framework of the criminal case went to report operative CABC FCS Paul Smolyarchuk. He had previously tried to catch Zarubin Scheme "overweight." In November 2014 wagon businessman close company crossed the Finnish-Russian border at a checkpoint "Torfyanovka" and went to the customs post "Ioannina", but on the way turned into an industrial zone "Murino" allegedly due to a malfunction. Suddenly there came the police and the Federal Customs Service employees, including Paul Smolyarchuk. However, if no violations found.
Zarubin and his entourage - in addition to the non-payment of customs payments - charged with organizing a criminal community (st.210 Criminal Code). This is in contrast to the "contraband article" allows you to keep them in custody. The detained for ten months, sitting in jail, including Zarubin sister, the mother of six of the child at the time of his arrest.
The e-mails made public Nesterenko, referred to a DMZ, it is Zaruba. Winner email@example.com addresses (presumably Paul Smolyarchuk) expressed dissatisfaction that this chelovek "dragged through the knife" part of someone else's flow coats and expensive clothes. The two sides are discussing possible links CLE in law enforcement. In a letter dated April 1, 2015 firstname.lastname@example.org announces plans to work on Zaruba.
In a conversation with RBC Igor sow he said that neither he nor the ULS are not related to the arrest of Zarubin.
A fight with a shadow
Smuggling gives importers the opportunity to reduce costs in half or two times on the import of Turkish goods in a few times for deliveries from Europe, from the calculations of the two customs brokers from St. Petersburg. "The main reason for the popularity of illegal schemes - a barrage of high duties on products of light industry, - says one of them. - Officially, this is done to support domestic production, and in fact only feeds a layer of corrupt officials and law enforcement officers. "
Another reason for the spread of contraband is a lack of a unified database in the customs and tax services. This allows imported bricks or tiles disappear into nowhere, and mass consumption appear on the balance sheet of the importersnowhere adds RBC said.
Head of the Center of support of FEA Galina Balandin, Major General Customs retired, I agree with both arguments. "Duties on import of light industrial products are really high. As for the disadvantages of interaction of the tax and customs, we can recall the old story, when a number of declarations legally imported consignment was indicated by different firms in dozens of invoices, but it did not attract the attention of tax inspectors, "- said the expert.
October evening in St. Petersburg Rosreestra control officer Boris Avakian entered the hall a luxury hotel The St. Regis on Nikolskaya Street in central Moscow. It has been in the Italian restaurant and sat at a table, write SMS is late interlocutor - Vadim Uvarov FSB. Three minutes later he appeared. Men had dinner, drank coffee and a half hours left.
After the meeting, Avagyan wrote a statement in its own security management (SSG) of the FSB. He argues that the restaurant we went about the business of the Intercessionment on the part of the St. Petersburg Uvarova number of firms engaged in customs clearance. FSB officers allegedly asked for it $ 3 million (copy application Avakian have RBC).
After a couple of months, in mid-December 2015, Boris Avakian in the lobby "Metropol" hotel under the control of CSS FSB gave 2 million rubles. former representative of the Federal Customs Service in Finland Vyacheslav Naumov. The latter immediately detained. Two days later, searches were held in Paul Smolyarchuk, drew the attention of the online edition of fontanka.ru. At the end of June this year in relation to Smolyarchuk and Uvarov conducted investigative actions and operational-search activities aimed at verifying information about their involvement in the bribe Naumov, said the official response signed by the investigator for particularly important cases of the Main Investigation Department of the TFR Oleg Martynov ( have RBC).
The press service of the Federal Customs Service reported that repeated checks on Paul Smolyarchuk did not confirm the fact of service violations, at the moment he continues to perform his duties. The FSB Public Relations Center did not respond to an inquiry about the RBC BaDima Uvarov. Boris Avagyan did not comment on RBC's role in this story, citing the secrecy of the investigation.
Do not parted on the corners
Inside the CSS thing Naumov takes six service - one of the most secretive of the FSB structures. It was noted, accompanied by high-profile arrests last time - the governor Nikita Belykh Vyacheslav Gayzer, Alexander Khoroshavina, Vladivostok Mayor Igor Pushkarev.
Six service was established in 2008, it has only 35 employees, RBC says a source close CSS. "It's guardsmen, who work at all for the idea, and for the shoulder straps, they have an impeccable reputation, no corruption scandal of all time - continues interlocutor RBC. - People live on 200 thousand rubles.. in a month, eat sprats and blood sausage Belarus, drink vodka, and day and night work. " But the natives of the "six", he said, are arranged in the warm places in the state corporation and secured to the end of life.
As explained by the same source, smuggling and detention mediator to 2 million rubles. not the level of the sixth service that deals with officials forceHovik and control of the budget funds. But this is of interest to a special person, because they are important Vadim Uvarov as a representative of the FSB and his superiors.
According to "Rosbalt", a couple of years ago, the FSB Economic Security Service (to include and control "K") and CSS were considered friendly structures - for example, together they defeated the influential anti-corruption Directorate of Internal Affairs, was sent to jail his boss Denis Sugrobova and other senior officers . But then began the confrontation, SEB employees began to fall in the NKVD development. According to the tense atmosphere of the agency security sources, in the summer of 2015, but then the hand once "lit in the corners."
Statements Avakian against Vadim Uvarov proved very useful in CSS and interested in the ULS, RBC continues to the source close to the management. NKVD examined correspondence promulgated Nesterenko. In late May, in Ust-Luga was detained goods arriving at ULS ferry, Turkish clothes, declared as building materials. Who passes the examination of the goods, it's the personal control of the head councilstion of the FSB in St. Petersburg and Leningrad region Alexander Rodionov, the source said RBC, adding that initiated the arrest is the sixth office CSS.
Two RBC interlocutor FSB suggested that one of the reasons, and retired Chief SEB Yuri Yakovlev, and the resignation of the management of the "K" Major-General Viktor Voronin was the criminal case, where Uvarov figures and operational data on smuggling flows in the North-West region.
Thus, the main result of the fight against smuggling and racketeering it was the victory of one of the clans within the FSB, summarizes the source of RBC close NKVD.