The number of violations revealed in the budget system last year doubled: in 2017, the state audit revealed violations of 1.87 trillion rubles. (in 2016 this figure was 965.8 billion rubles.), says the annual report of the Accounting Chamber (entered RBC), which auditors prepared on the eve of the change of the head of the department.
For comparison: expenditures of the budgetary system (federal budget plus the budgets of regions and extra-budgetary funds) in 2017 amounted to 32.4 trillion rubles, according to the data of the Treasury. Thus, with violations, an amount equivalent to 5.8% of all government expenditures was spent. The number of irregularities is also growing, from 3.8 thousand in 2016 to 6.5 thousand.
Both the improvement of audit quality and the uncertainty in the economy affect the growth of violations, says Natalia Akindinova, director of the Center for Development of the Higher School of Economics. "Last year was quite difficult due to the expectation of elections, changes in the composition of the government, foreign policy uncertainty," she noted. In such periods, short-term interests usually come to the fore, many people have a desire to earn money from the budget, Akindinova said.
However, the amount of budgetary funds "with signs of misuse or inefficient use" (corruption or theft may be a part of such violations) amounted to about 40 billion rubles, or 2% of the total amount of financial violations, according to the Accounting Chamber.
To help reduce the violations, the appointment of a new government may be considered, Akindinova said. The post of first deputy prime minister, who will oversee the financial and economic ministries, the head of the government, Dmitry Medvedev, has already proposed to Finance Minister Anton Siluanov (he will retain his post in the ministry). Tatyana Golikova, who is to become the vice-president of the government on the social bloc, previously headed the Accounting Chamber herself. And the new head of the audit department will be Alexey Kudrin, ex-head of the Ministry of Finance and current chairman of the Center for Strategic Research. Certainty increases, says Akindinova: you can hope that, given such appointments, the costs will be more effective.
The size of the "average" violation grew by 15% per year, says Alexander Shurakov, senior analyst of the group of sovereign ratings of ACRA: in 2015 it was just under 150 million rubles, in 2016 - 251.2 million rubles, in 2017 - 289 million rubles. The number of violations detected last year increased by 68% - in many respects this provided a twofold increase in their amount. This dynamic suggests that the diagnosis of violations has improved, Shurakov believes.
Of 1.87 trillion rubles. violations of the most problems was due to the accounting records (813.6 billion rubles.), follows from the data of the Chamber of Accounts. It is mistakes and non-compliance with accounting rules that provided more than half of the increase in the total amount of violations, Shurakov points out. "In previous years, the proportion of violations of accounting rules and the provision of financial reporting in the total amount of violations was much less," he said. "It's not that the state bodies and organizations subordinate to them began to tolerate a lot of violations in their financial statements, but that the Accounts Chamber is working harder in this direction."
The formation and execution of budgets had violations of 599 million rubles., 118.4 million rubles. is connected with state purchases. By industry, most of the violations were related to the space industry and the defense sector.
Control of Putin's decrees
The Accounting Chamber in its report once again recalls one of the key "systemic problems" - the absence of a comprehensive analysis of the execution of President Vladimir Putin's decrees in 2012. There is still no assessment of the necessary costs for decrees and the effectiveness of the use of these funds, the auditors write.
Now the Accounts Chamber will have to monitor the implementation of the new May decree of Putin, the costs of which are estimated at 25 trillion rubles. (of which additional expenditures amount to 8 trillion rubles). To control this will be Alexei Kudrin - the proposals of the CSR, which prepared a strategy for Putin and insisted on growing spending on education and medicine, also entered the May decree.
The most large-scale violations in the use of budgetary funds in 2017, according to the Accounting Chamber, were related to the space industry: there were 151 violations in the amount of 785.5 billion rubles.
At the same time, the main part of the problems with expenses in the space industry is related to the activities of the liquidation commission of the Federal Space Agency - violations of the total amount of 627.4 billion rubles were detected following the results of the inspection of the measures to abolish the agency and transfer of its property to the Roskosmos state corporation. The main among them is untimely or incomplete transfer to the budget of revenues from the use of state property, violation of the procedure and terms of payment for employees, violation of the requirements for accounting and storage of documents. Violations made by the liquidation commission of Roskosmos during the inventory of property and assets were also determined.
The agency was abolished on January 1, 2016, its successor was Roskosmos, and the liquidation commission of the Federal Space Agency worked until the end of April 2018. In the autumn of last year, the Accounts Chamber already reported that, based on the materials of its audit, the prosecutor's office identified a number of violations in the actions of the liquidation commission.
Another important verification measure with the identification of numerous violations was the cost analysis for the construction of the Vostochny cosmodrome. This object was started to be built in 2012 as the first national cosmodrome of civil destination. The first launch was expected in 2015, but was postponed to the spring of 2016. The construction of the facility was accompanied by numerous scandals and dozens of criminal cases.
According to the results of all inspections of the space industry in 2017, the Accounts Chamber sent 120 materials to the Investigative Committee, two more to the Prosecutor General's Office and one to the Interior Ministry. In addition, the prosecutor's office forwarded to the investigative authorities nine more materials of its own checks on the misuse of budget funds, for which eight criminal cases were opened. Also, the Court of Accounts sent 11 information letters to interested structures, including two to the president and one to the government. Auditors emphasize that the majority of the final documents on the control activities carried out in the space industry "have a restrictive mark" for official use "and" top secret ".
As previously known to RBC, the current director of Roskosmos, Igor Komarov, will soon resign from his post. His place is proposed to take the outgoing from the post of Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin.
Disruptions in the expenditure of funds for national defense, including ineffective use of federal and other resources, in 2017 amounted to a total of 544.5 billion rubles, according to the Accounting Chamber.
Among the claims to the Ministry of Defense is the unregulated assistance in military medical institutions "with respect to persons not belonging to the privileged contingent, which creates the prerequisites for the emergence of corruption risks." In addition, the department's expenses for the creation, modernization and maintenance of ten information systems and special software products were carried out at the expense of the funds provided for the implementation of the State Program of Armaments for 2011-2020, in the absence of such works and services. With respect to 87 projects of the Ministry of Defense's capital construction, there were no decisions on the preparation and implementation of budgetary investments in state property objects in the form of normative legal acts of the government and the Ministry of Defense. In relation to the 229 Defense Ministry facilities to be built in 2016, the initial authorization documentation was not issued; the keeping of housing records is not properly organized; the overestimation of prices of state contracts and military products was revealed.
Based on the results of the control measures, 34 submissions and six prescriptions of the Accounting Chamber were sent to the Defense Ministry. Six materials were sent to the prosecutor's office, 36 prosecutorial submissions, seven warnings about the inadmissibility of violation of the law, as well as two cases of administrative violations and one criminal case were initiated.
RBC sent a request to the Accounts Chamber to confirm this information.
Expenses of the military-industrial and space sectors are closed articles, the possibility to control the execution of which the society does not have, which in itself provokes violations, explains Ilya Shumanov, deputy general director of Transparency International. "It is impossible to verify whether this or that state contract was included in the closed part reasonably or why some or other trades were held in closed mode," the RBC interlocutor argues.
However, the issue of ineffective spending does not necessarily mean the presence of criminal offenses, the expert specifies. This may be an incorrect allocation of budget funds, technical violations, which also entail responsibility from those who admitted them, but not so serious, he says. "The question is whether the law enforcement bodies have enough competence to track, identify and confirm all these violations," Shumanov argues.
Member of the expert council of the collegium of the Military Industrial Commission, reserve colonel Victor Murakhovsky also draws attention to the fact that the violations identified are often formal.
"Most likely, it is a question of incorrect or untimely execution of documents and incorrect execution of some competitive procedures," the military expert explained. In his opinion, with the existing system of pricing, almost all means can be considered inefficiently used. "Our pricing is based on the method of cost recovery. The more the company was able to add expenses to the settlement materials and protect it before military acceptance and the FAS, the more "well done" it is, Murakhovsky argues.
Taking into account the existing system of special accounts in banks with treasury support, it was practically impossible to commit thefts, the colonel believes. In 2017, the list of funds that are not subject to treasury support, was fixed by law. Previously, these restrictions were set by the government.
The smaller scale
Against the backdrop of violations in the defense and space problems in other sectors do not look so large-scale. For example, in the audit of federal budget revenues, the amount of violations amounted to 8.5 billion rubles, and the main difficulties were weaknesses in their forecasting. The industry found violations of 6.7 billion rubles, in the fuel and energy complex - by 13.8 billion rubles., In agriculture - and at 202.5 million rubles.
A relatively high volume of violations is observed in health care - 84.7 billion rubles. This indicates a lack of regulatory and legal regulation and reduced access to medical care for the population, the Accounting Chamber said. At 51 billion rubles. admitted violations in education, 22.7 billion rubles. - in social policy, by 23.8 billion rubles. - in the transport sector.