Lovely European route and virtually no cars - as now looks the main section of high-speed toll road M11 Moscow - St. Petersburg. Three weeks ago, it was still different. land itself North-West Concession Company (SZKK controlled NPF "Welfare") inaugurated a year ago, but the fare was in no hurry to enter. The whole year motorists free and comfortably get to the "Sheremetyevo-2", Zelenograd and Solnechnogorsk to continue.
Morning of November 23 met with their gigantic traffic jams - SZKK introduced a paid mode. Payment centers could not cope with the flow of wanting to, and eventually had to open the gates and let all free. Tightly risen and free Leningrad highway.
Shocked and tariffs. The fare to the "Sheremetyevo" (10 km) can be up to 250 rubles, Zelenograd (25 km.) - 350 RUB Solnechnogorsk (43 km.) - 500 rubles. This rate is set to peak hours - on weekdays and from 6 am to 10 am and in the evening from 16.00 to 22.00. At other times the fare may be cheaper by 2.5-3 times (and congestion free alternative toHorn at this time is substantially lower), put off the transponder owners. Finally, just after the start of operation in the paid mode SZKK introduced a system of discounts depending on the frequency of visits. However, the maximum rate of an average of the track is 12 RUB / km, while the area to the "Sheremetyevo." - Altogether 25 rubles / km, whereas in Europe the maximum prices for similar roads make up 8-12 rubles.. (Cm. Incision on p. 21).
As I told "Vedomosti" close to the state company "Avtodor" official rates established in the framework of the concession agreement, and even lower than the maximum possible. "The situation with the traffic in line with our expectations. In world practice, reduction of traffic when entering the pay-mode - a natural phenomenon. Drivers will need some time to get used to it ", - said the representative SZKK. He says that recently there has been a gradual increase in the road load.
The more expensive fare on the first section of the M11 just a paid site on the highway M1 "Belarus" bypassing Odintsov, where the cost is 17 rub. / Km (on the inner portion of the IUI wait two congresses length of 2.9 km). On the other Russian toll road fare will cost from 1.4 to 9.4 rub. / Km (see. Table).
Why so different rates and who determines the fare? It all depends on the location of the road, investors and the concession model or carrier agreements.
Guessing on tariffs
The weighted average rate is commonly known even at the time of preparation of the tender documentation, it is specified in the concession agreement and pegged to the consumer price index, a federal official said. But often even the officials can not predict what will be the actual cost to the road.
A year ago, almost simultaneously opened two sections of road M11 Moscow - St. Petersburg. The head section from Moscow to Solnechnogorsk opened the head of the presidential administration Sergei Ivanov. He promised that the passage to the "Sheremetyevo" will cost 100 rubles, and to Solnechnogorsk - 300 rubles.
The second section - bypassing the Most High Volochek - opened Minister of Transport Maxim Sokolov. According to him, motorcars fare will cost 1.2 rubles. / Km (88 rubles. For the wholesection). The plot was paid this autumn. How to get over it is the day 240 rub., or 3.33 rub. / km. "Vedomosti" employee passed on this site in October on the way to St. Petersburg and back. The vast majority of cars are not willing to pay, and still go on the free road through Vishny Volochek.
The discrepancy between the promised payment to the actual employees of the concessionaire to explain the sharp drop in the ruble exchange rate and high inflation, which were indexed prices.
"The current rate seems so great, because it does not take into account that the original was identified back in 2007 and due to the accumulated inflation over the eight years it has grown just to the point", - said deputy general director of "Avtodor" Alexander Nosov. According to him, the first concession projects in a sufficiently large part of the funding - up to 60% - took the private investors. Also, they have undertaken and traffic risks. Therefore, investors are free to determine the tariff policy, which will allow them to recover the money invested. "Concessionaires are free to lower tariffs, but the upper boundary of the Sunwell defined by the concession agreement ", - said Nosov. SZKK representative recalled that the weighted average rate of 4.25 rub. / Km (VAT) was established back in 2007 prices and after all the indexation for 2008-2014. it has grown considerably.
The high cost of travel in the head section of the M11 and M1 is directly linked to the record value of building on these roads. 18.5 km detour bypassing Odintsov under a concession agreement to build a "main road", controlled by the Criminal Code "Leader" Yuri Kovalchuk. According to the company, the investment amounted to 32.1 billion rubles, including directly to the building -. 25 billion rubles. 11 billion rubles. It is allocated in the form of a repayable grant state 17.9 billion rubles. purchased bonds close to the "leader" of NPF. The operator of the site became associated with the "leader" the company "New quality of the roads."
On average, it turns out that the cost of 1 km of the road "Leader" and its partners to 1.7 billion rubles.
1 km of the construction site on the M11 SZKK cost a little less - 1.67 billion rubles. A total of 43 km of the 15-58-th km of the road M11 SZKK spent 72 billion rubles., Including statesupport amounted to 23 billion and equity investors - 10 billion The rest -.. bonds for 10 billion and bank loans of 29 billion The operator of the site is the company "United Toll Collect system" (OSSP) as SZKK, is a subsidiary of "Mostotrest". Last until 2014 owned by Arkady Rotenberg. After the businessman and longtime friend of Russian President Vladimir Putin was in the sanctions lists shares bought his son Igor Rotenberg. In 2015 "Mostotrest" became the property associated with the NPF "Welfare" of the company "TFA-finance." However, the Board of Directors "TPA-finance" after the deal went representative Igor Rotenberg Irina Makanova and Auditor company was Alexander Denisevich, also part of the management team, representing the interests of Arkady Rotenberg in a vodka factory "Crystal" and other related companies of the businessman. In "Enpivi engineering", where he works Makanova, saying that her presence on the board was due to the completion of the purchase of shares from minority shareholders "Mostotrest" and now she is no longer part of the owlsa Directors' TPA-finance. " "Igor Rotenberg and his representatives after completion of the deal more to do with management of" Mostotrest "have", - said the representative of "Enpivi engineering" Olga Antonova.
One reason for the high cost of travel may be high costs for the construction of the roads themselves, indicates the adviser law firm Dentos Ilya Skripnikov. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the complexity of the sites, encumbrances and other additional costs, which eventually can give a large amount of the costs. There's also a mistake in predicting traffic congestion adds Skripnikov. According to him, in the world practice the error is on average 30%. That is, at the stage of the project is considered, that traffic will be 100 000 cars, in reality it is at least 30,000. "On the M11 mistake could be greater, even when the site was free, I did not see it the active movement of cars," - says the lawyer.
Top-manager of one of the concessionaire reminds that prices can be raised once a year and only for inflation. So now, perhaps youGodnev set the maximum rate. "Lower the fare is always possible, but just move the top bar can not be", - says the source "Vedomosti".
However, the cost of construction is not always a direct impact on the cost of travel. The most expensive road in Europe under construction - the central part of the Western High-Speed Diameter (WHSD) in St. Petersburg. The road length of 11.7 km for the most part will consist of bridges and tunnels, and will cost more than 120 billion rubles., Or 10.25 billion rub. / Km. Almost half of investments - 51 billion rubles. - Accounts for the budget. Concessionaire WHSD is established by Gazprombank and VTB consortium "Highway of the Northern Capital." Now travel on the southern and northern sections of the WHSD (they are built from the budget, investments amounted to 83 billion rubles.) Is 9.4 and 3.8 rub. / Km. According to the newspaper "Fontanka" in the concession agreement set the maximum allowable fare for the central area of 113 rubles. It turns out about 9.6 rubles / km. Top-manager of the investing company says that in St. Petersburg lower purchasing power, and that the tariffless. "But due to the large flow of the project still will pay", - said the source "Vedomosti".
The state will pay in addition
Agreement with SZKK and "main road" characterized not only by the fact that the roads built on them were the most expensive. Only on these two agreements, the whole fee for the road goes directly to companies. In other cases, long-term investment and concession agreements collected from road fee statement lists the "Avtodor", and the return to the concessionaire of its share of the cost of investment and operation. The minimum guaranteed revenue only in the agreement for the construction ZSD in St. Petersburg. If the annual income of "Motorways of the Northern Capital" will be less than 9.6 billion rubles., The company will pay in addition the budget the missing amount.
"Concession Agreement with direct return on investment to the concessionaire" Avtodor "will no longer conclude," - said Nosov. According to him, the fact that these sections of roads with heavy traffic is no longer so difficult to attract investors.
For all other types of endsion agreements to pay for expensive out much cheaper. For example, even in one section M11 Moscow - St. Petersburg - 258-334 th km (bypassing Vyshny Volochek in Tver Region) - fare - only 3.3 rubles / km.. The operator of this site is also a former company Rotenberg - OSSP and built it on a long-term investment agreement on the construction, maintenance and "Mostotrest" operation.
Last year, the Audit Chamber checked how to implement this agreement, and found that the cost of construction exceeded compared to planted in the project and confirmed Gosexpertiza from October 8, 2010 the sum of 51 billion rubles. 12,9% (6,6 bln.). In addition, the project turned out to be unprofitable for the state. According to estimates of auditors, the total revenue from the collection of tolls should amount to 2033 34,680,000,000 rubles. Of this money, "Avtodor" in agreement with "Mostotrest" should return the company 13 billion rubles. for the repair of roads, 14 billion rubles. operational and 16.5 billion rubles. investment payments. That is just 43.5 billion rubles. In this model it does not pay off not only the construction doroutcomes (about 51 billion rubles.), but even its maintenance and operation, concluded the Accounts Chamber.
Auditors made a mistake in the calculations - not take into account adjustments for inflation, countered, "Highways". Therefore, the construction cost was higher, but the amount of the expected revenue to be more than 60% - 56.3 billion rubles. That's enough to cover all costs leads KPMG «Avtodor" rating.
"Where traffic risks lie with the State, the tariffs are much lower. In contrast to the state-owned company to private investors is no question of return on investment. This is considered irrevocable state grant "- said Nosov. State and so will benefit - through taxes, new jobs on the invested ruble budget gets out of 6 rubles. Besides the state, and so it would have to build a road, and through the involvement of private investors in the savings can not build 100 and 200 km.
Concession agreements with SZKK and "main road" have been concluded for 30 years. Also before 2042 will be at a concession "Motorways of the Northern Capital" WHSD in St. Petersburg. During this time, the concessionaires will have time to return all the embeddeds funds and earn. According to the calculations "main road", its profit for the period of the concession may be about 130 billion rubles. After that, the road back to the state and officials decide what to do with them then - transfer them back to the concession or after open repair free travel.
Directions for the ruble
All paid federal highway M1, M4 "Don" M3 "Ukraine" are in trust management of the state company "Avtodor". Plus, the company is a state customer of the road Moscow - St. Petersburg. For M4 "Don" rate of 1 rub. / Km for the car the government has established another 31 December 2009 when approved "Avtodor" program of activities. The program stated that the calculation of the tariff option was chosen, taking into account the need for an adaptation period for users to get used toll roads. Why 1 rub.? Such a tariff act in 2006 on one of the first sections of toll roads in Russia - on the bypass of the village Hlevnoe in the Lipetsk region. By what technique was determined in 2006 that it is necessary to take 1 rub., No one remembers.
In 2011, the rightsstruction made in the program of clarification: 1 rub. should travel on the reconstructed road, built on the new fare be paid 1.5 rub. / km. "Avtodor" also from 2012 are required to conduct annual indexation of tolls of vehicles in accordance with the consumer price index.
In reality, the rates are not indexed. At two sites, which charge a fee steel until 2013, until the summer of 2015 acted in tariffs in 2012 on new sites set prices at the time of the launch of a paid-up - already adjusted for inflation since 2012, said the representative of the "Avtodor" Catherine Varenova.
In July 2015 "Avtodor" held indexation of tariffs for all sectors, based on the consumer price growth of official data in 2014 by 11.4%, in 2013 - by 6.5% and in 2012 - 6 6%. As a result, the weighted average tariff for passenger cars increased from 1 to 1.3 rub. / Km, the press service of "Avtodor". And the real cost of travel on toll road section M4 "Don" for passenger cars is currently 1.4-1.8 rub. / Km depending on the site location.peratorom mostly paid M4 "Don" is also a former company Rotenberg OSSP.
Nosov of "Avtodor" said that new construction sites will be set fare of about 2 rub. / Km. According to him, "Avtodor" always doing research before launching sites in toll operation to find out how drivers would react to having to pay and what the tariff will suit them. Examples of the tariff revision after Nosov such surveys could not lead. "We do not change the rate, and introduce certain discounts. If a person commits a paid trip along the route once a year, then he is ready to pay 500 rubles. If there is a need for daily trips, we are introducing for the drivers is very big discounts, "- said Nosov.
Unlike the road Moscow - St. Petersburg highway on payment settlements "Don" often gather large plugs. Representative OSSP promises that the company in May, will increase the capacity by almost half due to the opening of additional points of payment and adding lanes reverse.
But the new giant projects for the construction of toll roads in the UKOromo-time should not be expected, said a member of the Board of NP "National Association of technological and price audit" Boris Yaryshev. He believes that such projects will be developed only where this car is enough. Advent of mass regional toll roads, he does not expect. "Most likely there will not build toll roads, and short sections of 2 km, which can be difficult to overtake on the site free track" - thinking Yaryshev. The analyst "Metropole" Andrei Rozhkov also said that toll roads will be developed only where the ordinary is no longer cope with the flow of cars. "If the free understudy slightly increases the travel time and the quality is acceptable, the paid site will not be in demand", - believes Rozhkov.