According to the international rating agency Fitch, since 2014, the state spent 3.2 trillion rubles to save Russian banks. The money came in the form of direct injections into the capital, issued to bankers for the recovery of other problem banks and flowed into the deposit insurance fund, the replenishment of which almost entirely fell on the CB machine.
But despite the infusions, the metastases of the banking crisis are climbing higher: in March Tatfondbank (42nd in terms of assets in the country) remained without a license, in June - Yugra bank (20th place), and in August, 7 went to the bottom by the size of assets at that time and the largest private bank "Otkrytie".
To support the "Discovery" will have to spend another 250-400 billion rubles, said in an interview with Reuters on Friday, Deputy Chairman of the Central Bank Vasily Pozdyshev.
According to him, the owners withdrew from the bank at least 24% of the capital, giving out loans to themselves. These are preliminary conclusions of the interim administration, Pozdyshev said. It will work for another three months, the real volume of lending by the bank to owners may be higher.
Now we are talking about "maximizing the funds back to the bank," the deputy chairman said.
In July, the central bank had already injected 333 billion rubles into Otkryt in the form of repo loans and, judging by its own statistics, continued injections in August (up to 360 billion rubles), and shortly before the introduction of the interim administration, it began issuing unsecured loans, the amount of which remains classified.
Thus, in total, the support for the "Discovery" can reach 1.1 trillion rubles, which will go to the system in the form of a net cash issue.
The experience of the past is sad: the money infused into the banking system tends to dissolve without a trace. Of the 32 banks that received assistance from the state, only half recorded an actual increase in capital, the head of the Accounts Chamber, Tatyana Golikova, said in December. Every second bank lost all allocated money, and only 4% let them in for stated purposes - lending to priority projects in the economy.
There is a version, the sanation of "Discovery" is the plan of owners to get out of business with profit, says Evgeny Slavnov, a former credit analyst for the banking sector "Rus-Rating".
The scheme is known: first the bank increases its size, attracting loans for the sanation of other banks and money from pension funds. "Then the funds are withdrawn from the bank in various ways, and the holes in the balance sheet are plugged at the expense of the taxpayer's funds during the reorganization." As a result, the owners lose control of the bank, but remain with the assets they withdrew, "Slavnov explains.
He admits: while there is not enough evidence to say with absolute certainty that the events in the bank have evolved exactly this way.
Clarity, he said, will bring further actions of the Central Bank. It is important, whether someone from the management of the bank will be held accountable, as well as what assets will enter the perimeter of the rehabilitation.
"If, on the basis of the results of the sanation, the state receives a squeezed bank and all the interesting assets magically appear behind the perimeter of a nationalized institution, this will be a strong testimony in favor of the fact that we are not seeing the rescue of a drowning giant, but the withdrawal of assets from the bank," Slavnov said.