To reduce the cost of square meters, developers in the regions save literally everything - and build the standard projects of past years
Regional real estate markets lag behind the capital markets for about 10-15 years, but their development is proceeding according to similar schemes, says Anna Sokolova, head of the strategic marketing department of the Ingrid Group of Companies. In the golden 2000s. there was practically no competition between the developers in Moscow, and the margin began from 50%, recalls Vladimir Savchuk, Director General of the Development Company, who worked in the GVSU Center since 1999. Vedomosti. At that time, there was little thought of quality and, especially, the improvement of mass housing. By 2013, competition has become stronger - the market has overheated. The crisis exacerbated the situation. Now developers in the struggle for the consumer are forced to create as high-quality projects - faceless boxes no longer attract anyone - although "all these improvements cost money," said at the conference "Development of a New Wave: Classics or the Vanguard" Ivan Romanov, Managing Director of LSR. Real Estate-Moscow ».
Not high, not low
26.5% of all objects under construction in the country - height of 1-3 floors, 18.6% - 4-8 floors, refers to the data of the Unified Register of Developers, the managing partner of the "Metrium Group", the partner of the CBRE partner network Maria Litinetskaya. According to Rosstat, in 2016, Russia built 27.395 million square meters. m of brick houses (including individual houses), 14.395 million monolithic houses, 11.963 million block houses and 8.515 million panel houses. Experts explain the high popularity of bricks outside of Moscow and St. Petersburg by Vedomosti: they are also typical projects, the documentation for which has been prepared and agreed in the regions, which makes it possible to save money.
In general, cost reduction is one of the main tasks of regional developers. "The reason for the utility of the product is obvious - low solvency of the population. About 40% of Russians' income goes to food and clothing. The purchase of housing, the more new, for many an impossible task, "- reflects Litinetskaya.
1 sq. M. m of new buildings in Russia, according to the federal portal "World of apartments", costs an average of about 51,000 rubles, in Moscow - about 199,000 rubles, in Petersburg - 105,000, in the suburbs - 83,000 rubles. The lowest prices were fixed in Makhachkala - 25,862 rubles. for 1 square. m. Cost of 1 square. m of inexpensive LCD, according to the information of the GC "Ingrid", the average for the country is 28,000-32,000 rubles, high-end complexes - 40,000-45,000 rubles. According to Pavel Bryzgalov, the director for strategic development of FGC "Leader", the erection of a concrete box of comfort class in any region costs about 30 000 rubles. for 1 square. m, the cost of land, as a rule, is about 10% of the total cost price.
In Moscow and St. Petersburg, the prime cost is higher due to land prices, but it does not differ dramatically, as construction materials and components cost roughly the same throughout the country, said the managing partner of Vectorstroifinance, Andrei Kolochinsky. "The margin of regional developers in absolute figures is much less than in the capital, about 3000-4000 rubles. from the sold meter against about 20 000-30 000 rubles. in Moscow. The price of error is great: this money is not enough for maneuvers in problem situations. In the regions, developers work as if they are walking on a rope, "the expert believes.
One of the main articles of spending cuts is the use of standard projects, which is why in the regions, in fact, they are building "yesterday's day," experts say. According to the video bloggers of the project "NeMoskva" Nikita Zhuravlev and Rahim Jafarov, who traveled 13 cities in the summer of 2017 to study the Russian market of new buildings, "new Khrushchevs" are being built there. "Unreasonably cheap housing is being created. For example, in Tula, we saw LCDs with low-rise buildings without elevators and ramps, with courtyards without lighting and almost without gardening, with playgrounds squeezed on lawns between the porches. In Samara, I remember the project with three-story barracks on giant fields. In almost every city we saw something similar, "Zhuravlev said.
According to the deputy head of the analytical committee of the Russian Guild of Realtors, head of the analytical department of the Urals Chamber of Real Estate Mikhail Khorkov, low income and prices in the regions do limit the opportunities of developers. "In general, the market in recent years has moved along the path of simplification and expectedly came to the fact that it competes directly with the Khrushchevs at a price," the expert says.
Everything is normal
According to experts interviewed by Vedomosti, a significant improvement in the quality of new buildings is possible only with the increase in effective demand and the increase in the incomes of the population. "Regarding other countries in Russia is not the highest cost of 1 square. m. But the income level is one of the smallest. Average incomes per person should be approximately 2-2.5 times higher than now, so that even the current, not the most refined housing became really affordable, "Litinetskaya said.
The experts interviewed add: Russian new buildings that are not even of the highest quality in any case comply with the norms and standards adopted at the legislative level.
Along with the rather deplorable examples described by video bloggers, there are also directly opposite regions. "When we participate in the audit of regional projects or we go out to visit colleagues, we see very different products in the regions," Sokolova said. According to her, there are developers who, at a price of 50,000-60,000 rubles. for 1 square. m apply such technologies to which even Moscow's new buildings have not grown. Familiar with similar projects and bloggers. They were especially impressed by the work of Unistroi in Kazan and Brusniki in Yekaterinburg and Tyumen. According to Zhuravlyov, in the projects of these companies everything is thought through to the smallest detail - and architecture, and layout, and landscaping. "Perhaps most importantly, developers are creating a comfortable urban environment, which is now being talked about so much," he said. The emergence of such companies, whose projects are significantly distinguished against the general background, is changing the market for the better, believes Khorkov.
Quality, not quantity
Regional markets are already beginning to gradually overheat, as well as Moscow in 2013. According to Sergey Georgievsky, Director General of the Strategic Development Agency "Center", for 2010-2015. the pace of housing construction in Russia has increased significantly - by 68% (for comparison: in Moscow the figure was + 20%, in Europe -80%). "The supply exceeds demand not only in the capital, but also in the regions, which is already forcing developers to improve the quality of housing. Mainly due to the creation of a quality living environment, "says Savchuk.
The agency investigated the "10 best practices of housing construction in Russia", considered LCD, in which at least one line was put into operation in the period from the first quarter of 2016 to the I quarter of 2018. Of 1069 residential complexes in 175 created a high level of comfort of the environment , in 352 - medium +, in 353 - medium, in 189 - low. The top ten LCDs included projects in Kazan, Ufa, Perm, Yaroslavl, Tyumen, Moscow, Chelyabinsk, Novosibirsk and Izhevsk. "Most regional developers are thinking about creating a comfortable urban environment. This trend of recent years, "- says Georgievsky. For example, about 10 years ago the view of the yard was extremely narrow: a playground, a lawn and parking. Now there is the concept of a system of public spaces, oriented to different target groups (children, adolescents, adults, elderly people). Creation of public spaces is already a separate project, emphasizes Georgievsky.
Several factors influenced the development of this trend. First, among the developers increased competition. Secondly, the Ministry of Construction of Russia and AHML launched the priority project "Building a Comfortable Urban Environment". They also held an open international competition of architectural concepts of standard housing and residential development in Russia, the operator was the Strelka Design Bureau. 20 finalists should finalize the concept by the end of March. One of the possible options for using the proposed projects is "through the mechanisms of the unified development institute AHML to find the means to buy them out and immerse them in a single register of standard projects, which, on behalf of the Russian government, is supervised by the Ministry of Construction of Russia." "Then developers can take them from the documentation, and only the binding to the terrain will remain. The second option - after seeing on our sites the winners, developers can go directly or take out draft decisions as a basis, "- said the Minister of Construction and Housing of the Russian Federation, Mikhail Men. This will allow developers to reduce design time and costs at all stages of work, they are confident in AHML.
When such changes are introduced at the level of national policy, the corresponding trends inevitably become general market, experts say.
Thirdly, the development of technologies and the appearance of new materials have increased the capabilities of builders: new manufacturers of small architectural forms, children's and sports grounds, elements of improvement appeared. Georgievsky recalls that creating a comfortable urban environment does not always require large expenditures. Rather, we are talking about intelligent solutions - we need to think ahead of time, what people might need, attract potential buyers ("participating engineering").
As noted in the PIK, the provision of new buildings with social and engineering infrastructure in the regions should be handled by local administrations. But the authorities share these responsibilities with developers. "However, there are still developers who are reluctant to step back from these events, refer to them as an additional burden," the company says.
In reality, developers do not interfere with quality housing in Russia right now, experts say. "We need to live each sheet of project documentation and every stage on the construction site. You need to manage the cost of general contracting. For years, choose contractors. Scrupulously select materials. You need to be a big company to get an adequate price from suppliers. Invest in people and develop their intellect to produce innovations in engineering and engineering solutions, creating durability, quality and aesthetics ", - says Elena Eremenko, product director of" Brusniki "product.
Khorkov also notes that to improve the quality of housing in the regions it is worth stopping chasing the volume of construction: this is too simple, but meaningless task. "You can not simultaneously require the market to build more and better. Ensure a rapid growth in the volume of input can only be due to the development of fields by cheap houses, "he explains.
According to the expert, it would be much more effective to invest in modernizing old districts in Russian cities, many of which are degrading, where the engineering infrastructure is dilapidated, and the transport infrastructure is not improving. Renovation of old areas, or renovation, for most Russian cities will be associated not with the violent demolition of Khrushchev, but with the elimination of 2-3-storey houses, if not emergency, then in poor condition.
"Affordable housing is not necessarily an apartment in a new building. The offer in the secondary market can be quite affordable for a large number of buyers. And the old fund, too, must be engaged. In pursuit of affordable meters in the housing market, we forget about upgrading the infrastructure in the old areas. This is a serious omission, "concludes Mikhail Khorkov.