US court in early April approved a record fine for the oil company BP for the accident on a drilling platform Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico.
The explosion took place in April 2010, killing 11 people, and in the waters of the Gulf spilled 627,000 tons of oil. The court BP must pay a total of about $ 20 billion.
The Russian oil companies report annually on approximately 50,000 tons of oil lost in a result of accidents on oil pipelines. However, to believe in it with difficulty. Independent experts called the figure of 4-5 million tons of oil, which is comparable to spill on the coast of the United States. Minister of Natural Resources and Environment Minister Sergei Donskoi said about 1.5 million tons of oil annually lost by. But environmental fines are rarely more than 10 billion rubles. in year. This is a paltry sum compared to the financial consequences for the perpetrators of such accidents abroad. "Co" I found out why this is happening and who is of Russian companies have more oil spills.
Record for leaks
The tragedy in the Gulf of Mexico has become the largest environmental disaster in US history. But this is rather an exception to the rule. World leaders on leake oil - Russian oil companies. If domestic oil officially declare 10 000-15 000 breakthroughs oilfield pipelines per year, in the US and Canada, it is a maximum of a few hundred of such an emergency. So, in 2014 at Total was 129 leaks at BP - 156, from Exxon - 335. We look at Russia, where the champion was the state company "Rosneft". It declared 5797 cases of breakthrough flowlines. In second place "Lukoil" - 3114 cases, the third "Bashneft" - 1132 accident.
Statistics for 2015 slightly better ( "Co" has figures for the 11 months of last year) in "Rosneft" 5030 breakthrough, the "Lukoil" - 3118, the "Bashneft" - 790. Of course, the number of accidents depends on the volume of production. If you look at the number of pipeline breaks 1 million tons of crude oil, over the 11 months of 2015 the leader is "Bashneft" (44.4 accidents). In second place "Lukoil" (39.5) and the third - "Rosneft" (27.5). "Do you imagine that would make the West to BP of Exxon or, if they have numbered in the thousands pipeline accident? - Said the head of energeticheCoy program "Greenpeace Russia" Vladimir Chuprov. - They'd have gone bankrupt because of lawsuits. "
The most significant was an oil spill from the field in the Lakeview Gusher (California, USA). In 1910, after the accident at the largest field of America, scored gusher, and within 18 months spilled into the surrounding area of 9 million barrels (1.23 million tons). In 1991, during the first Gulf War, Saddam Hussein, to obstruct the landing of American troops, ordered to open the valves on the oil pipeline to the oil port. United States, in turn, to stop prime the oil port waters began bombing the supply line. As a result, in the waters of the Arabian Gulf and in Kuwait resulted 6-8 million barrels of oil (820-1,000 thousand. T). The third largest oil spill was an accident on the Deepwater Horizon BP oil platform British company, after which the water in the Gulf of Mexico spilled 627 thousand. Tons of oil.
Against the herders'
Less likely spill had "Surgutneftegaz", one PE in 2014and none of the 11 months of last year. Compared with other companies, this is a unique index, and environmentalists think: instead of hiding whether the company is its failure. "This is impossible. The number of impulses is measured, as a rule, by the thousands, - says head of the environmental policy of oil and gas sector of the World Wildlife Fund Program (WWF) of Russia Alexei the scribes. - Or is it incorrect statistics, and it includes only cases that have led to serious environmental damage. " According to him, the company may underestimate the spill volumes and thus do not fall in the statistics. For example, now all of the oil spills are divided into two categories - pre-accident and emergency immediately. Pre-accident is considered to spill less than 10 cubic meters of oil, and he did not even have to pay a fine. "Salaries in the" Surgutneftegaz "low and depend on the bonus, - says Vladimir Chuprov. - The smaller spills, the higher the bonus. " An indirect proof of that can serve as information and prosecutors KhMAO. They argue that in August last year in the oilfield Fedorovskozhdeniya oil in the Surgut district breakthrough pipeline "Fedorovskneft" was registered OJSC "Surgutneftegas", which resulted in the oil contaminated waters Moss section of the river. But this case is for some reason was not included in the statistics of "Surgutneftegaz" for breakthroughs. Not reflected in this information CDU TEK.
Activists of the "Greenpeace Russia" public organization in November of last year amounted to a map of "Surgutneftegaz" violations by the lake Imlor in Ugra and sent a complaint to the supervisory authority. There were identified 36 cases, including the laying of roads covered with pipes and waterways, oil contamination of water and soil, the illegal construction of poachers.
"Surgutneftegaz" is mining and oil exploration in the Surgut area, including the territories of traditional nature Khanty. According to the oil company's plan, the road to the mine will take place just a kilometer away from the camp of indigenous people. There must build drilling, pipelines, power lines. To extract oil on Wetlands Natural Park "Numto", "Surgutneftegas" Owndischarges a change the zoning of the park. According to the current position of the natural park it is strictly prohibited. In "Greenpeace Russia" emphasize that the natural park "Numto" included in the list of Ramsar perspective dedicated to wetlands of international importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat.
The legacy of Yukos
The biggest accident last year's oil spill in the Rosprirodnadzor called "black gold" in the area of the ducts Cheuskina Ob River at the Nefteyugansk Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug. The culprit - "RN-Yuganskneftegaz", "daughter" of "Rosneft", formerly the main asset of Yukos. From holes in the pipeline spilled 204 cubic meters of oil spill area exceeds 10 hectares, and the amount of damage - 270 million rubles. Bottling under Nefteyugansk has become one of the largest in the past few years. Previous major oil spill in Russia was recorded in the spring of 2013, Colva river in Komi - fault lies with the company "Rusvetpetro" (a joint venture between "Zarubezhneft" and the company Petrovietnam). Then the sum inimpairing totaled 119 million rubles.
As reported by "Co" Rosprirodnadzor "RN-Yuganskneftegaz" I am not repair the damage. As the "Co" in the last week in the field of environmental control and supervision service environment, wildlife and forest relations Khanty-Ugra (Prirodnadzor) filed two lawsuits in the Court of Arbitration KhMAO in this case. According to the Registry of arbitration cases, only in the last year examined more than 100 cases related to environmental claims to "RN-Yuganskneftegaz" in the Arbitration Court of Khanty-Mansiysk District.
Problems with environmental safety in "Rosneft", not only in the Khanty. In early March of this year, Ehab deposit in the Khabarovsk Territory (the license owned by "Sakhalinmorneftegaz") spilled about 15 tonnes of oil in an area of over 3,500 square meters. m. According to preliminary data, the water did not get oil, but such danger when the water level rises due to melting of snow persists. Also in early March, already on the main pipeline Vankor-Pur-Pe, in which "Rosneft" is pumping oil from the Vankor field, due to the water hammer at two pointsdepressurized pipeline. The area of the spill was about 100 square meters. m.
"Rosneft" could not promptly comment on "Co" this situation. Meanwhile, state-owned site contains information about the work in the field of industrial safety only in 2014, "The level of accidents on the company's facilities group companies has been reduced by 1.6 times - from eight to five cases; implemented measures in the area of reliability of the pipeline system worth more than 15 billion rubles, which has resulted in reduction of failures of field pipelines by 12%.; pipeline replacement program of the reconstruction of 762 km of pipelines, "- stated on the website of" Rosneft ". Number of incidents with environmental damage from "Lukoil" in 2014 increased to 87 against 66 in 2013. The volume of spilled oil has increased almost twice - up to 106 tons. The company Vagit Alekperov on the prevention and elimination of consequences of emergency situations, including the diagnosis and replacement of pipelines, as well as their protection in 2014 directed 12.6 billion rubles. "Gazprom Neft" spends annually about 3.6 billion rubles.and ensuring the reliability of the pipeline system. "In 2015, he was an overhaul of 289 kilometers of pipeline, representing 2.3% of the total length of the pipeline system", - reported "Co" in "Gazprom oil". But this is not enough.
The main cause of oil spills in Russia - worn field pipelines. According to official statistics, more than 90% of all pipeline ruptures in Russia is due to corrosion of pipes, caused by worn-out equipment and improper operation of the pipeline. Many Threads for more than 30 years, while accident-free period of operation is about 15 years. Most companies replace old pipes slowly. If the work will continue at a pace as now, "Rosneft", for example, to replace all the pipes through 55-80 years, "Bashneft" - 150 years (these figures are based on infrastructure modernization company reports).
Why Russian oil companies are not invested in the modernization? In 2012, Natural Resources Minister Sergei Donskoi estimated cost of replacing the pipeline and reMonta approximately 1.3 trillion rubles. The fix is to invest an additional 200 billion rubles. per year over 5-7 years (now spends about three times less than required). This is a serious sum, comparable to 10% of the profits of oil companies. But to part with it they do not want. "If replacement is required each year to 5-7% of pipeline Park, then in fact changes only 1-2%, - says Vladimir Chuprov. - The rate of substitution must be increased at least three times, but oil companies choose to save money on upgrades, they do not think about the damage to the ecology. " According to him, if the damage from oil spills taken into account fully, the company today would have to pay for his payment of 10 billion rubles., And about 300 billion rubles.
"Repair and construction of pipelines - it is very expensive, and in the company of trying to save the crisis, including environmental activities, - says Alexei Knizhnikov. - Not reducing production volumes, and increasing at the same accident, they can continue to work. " As an example, he cited last year's supervised treatmentteley five largest oil companies to Vladimir Putin with a request to take measures to stabilize the situation in the industry, including the proposal to postpone the timing of the introduction of penalties for non-normative burning of associated gas, which is a kind of environmental encumbrance.
Fines for oil for noncompliance with environmental laws really miserable. For example, the damage caused by the breakthrough in the pipeline Nizhnevartovsk-Kurgan Samara in 2006, a result which was contaminated with 8.1 hectares of land near the river and flowing, was estimated only 15 million rubles., A breakthrough on the pipeline owned by "Lukoil-Usinskneftegazu "in 2012, because of which the soil and the water got about 100 cubic meters of oil products - to RUR 1.12 million. In 2013, the court ordered the "RN-Yuganskneftegaz" the federal budget to pay for the pollution of 0.9 hectares of forest near Mamontovskoe field 11.8 million rubles. Therefore, oil companies more profitable to pay the fine than to upgrade worn-out pipelines. Eliminate the consequences of accidents they are on their own, for which every company, there'remontnye Brigade. The idea is that it can do and the state, but the oil industry is more profitable on their own to eliminate spills. First, it is cheaper, and the costs of the work are deducted from environmental damages. Secondly, so they do not allow the place of accident outsiders that allows you to hide the consequences of oil spills.
In Rosprirodnadzor could not explain why the punishment for companies not caring about environmental safety, so little. According to Michael Ovodkova, deputy head of the state environmental supervision Rosprirodnadzor, the method of calculating the damages caused to water bodies due to violations of water legislation, developed in accordance with the Water Code of the Russian Federation. It depends on the oil volume caught in soil or water, as well as the duration of the negative impact of hazardous substances, if for one reason or another unable to neutralize them.
Officials do not hurry to change the law and to tighten the requirements. "The industry YaVone to a driver of economic development, and many agencies are a hostage of this situation, - says Alexei Knizhnikov. - They are afraid to put pressure on oil, bringing in almost half of the budget income. " Oil and gas companies provide content about half of the federal budget. At the same time the share of oil, according to expert estimates, up to 45%, or about 7 trillion rubles. "It turns out a tacit agreement between the leadership of the country and oil companies, - says Vladimir Chuprin. - You are our guarantee revenue, and we forget about the environment, providing a guaranteed rate of return -. 1 trillion rubles, including through environmental dumping ". The profitability of Russian oil companies' assets is significantly higher than the average value for the economy of Russia (three times in 2013 and four - in 2014).
Russian oil from an economic point of view, are more efficient than their Western counterparts, not only thanks to the support from the budget and tax benefits. An additional factor in the success of the oil companies is hidden subsidies: they saveand the repair and maintenance of oil pipelines, and in the case of accidents do not bear for them the full financial responsibility. This is called ecological dumping.