Fraud at the expense of VIP-clients: how the Vneshprombank pyramid collapsed

The amount of claims to Vneshprombank reached 215 billion rubles, as estimated the DIA. In January, the bank lost its license, its co-owners Georgy Bedzhamov and Larisa Marcus were brought to custody. How the pyramid was built and why did it collapse?
Origin source
The total volume requirements Vneshprombank 2 June totaled 214.9 billion rubles., RBC reported the press service of the Deposit Insurance Agency (DIA) on Thursday. Compared with the beginning of April, when the ACB is the sum of the requirements of 81.1 billion rubles., It increased almost threefold. But the bank to present the new requirements is no longer possible: Vneshprombank register of creditors closed May 18th.

What amount was typed at DIA for payments at the initial stage, a representative of the agency did not disclose - this information will be presented to the creditors' meeting on 17 June. But in early April DIA disclose that payments have a total of 4 billion rubles. By May 1, the bank balances on hand and balances with the Central Bank and the DIA increased to 7.5 billion rubles., While in the bankruptcy estate received 6.1 billion rubles. But not all of these funds will be used for payments: they take into account the costs of the DIA on the salaries of employees of the bank, the maintenance of its buildings, etc.

According to a source close to DIA, since April the situation with payments, "it has not changed much." According to one of the major creditors, the bankruptcy trustee is not scored, and 10 billion rubles. One of the VIP-savers Vneshprombank told RBC that countsreturn no more than 15% of their savings.

RBC versed in the history of the largest banking pyramid: how it was built and why collapsed.

From Monaco to Russia

In September 2015 near the waterfront of Albert the Great in the Monte Carlo opened wine bar Wine Palace. Ribbon was cut by the Prince of Monaco Albert II, he was standing next to George Bedzhamov - Russian businessman, president of the Federation of Bobsleigh and one of the owners Vneshprombank. New York Times called Bedzhamova owner of Wine Palace.

About half a year should come down on January 21, 2016, the Bank of Russia revoked the license Vneshprombank to find a hole in it a record 210 billion rubles. And in March Bedzhamova declared internationally wanted: he is charged in the case of the withdrawal of assets from Vneshprombank more than 1 billion rubles. In April, he was arrested by the police of Monaco and is now in jail principality.

As told RBC source in the Prosecutor General's Office, the Office sent a request for extradition Bedzhamova in mid-May. The request of the Prosecutor General has confirmed to RBC and lawyer Sergei Bedzhamova Belchich. According to RBC's source, the Prosecutor General's document contains a guaranteeand that the businessman will pursue only those crimes that are listed in circulation.

"The prosecutor's office promised that in jail Bedzhamov will be held in conditions that meet international standards", - said a source in the department. The request will be considered by the Court of Appeal of Monaco, but the final decision remains the law of the principality of Prince Albert II.

On the same criminal case in December last year in Moscow he was arrested a sister Bedzhamova, president and co-owner of Vneshprombank Larissa Marcus. May 17 the court extended the arrest of Marcus for another three months, said her lawyer, RBC.

Vneshprombank, celebrated in July of last year, the 20-year anniversary, turned out to be a classical pyramid. It even can be compared with the scam Bernard Madoff - if not on the scale of (Madoff pyramid was $ 50 billion owed to its customers), then by the nature of activity - lime reporting calculations with old money new customers.

From many other pyramids it is different in that it was built on the money of big companies, officials, deputies and businessmen who trust banksI have your money. They began to open bank accounts in the late 1990s. Private investors are kept in the bank large sums of money: at the time of withdrawal of the license had accumulated more than 20 billion rubles, which is almost a quarter of the total deposits..

As the pyramid grew Vneshprombank why the Central Bank so long did not notice it and it literally fell in one day?

Famous clients

"Marcus told everyone that attract VIP-clients helping her good communication, which she began to wind up back in the Ministry of the Navy of the USSR, many customers were an acquaintance with another member of the bank - Alexander Zurabov," - says one of the business partners Marcus .

Markus directly owned 7.5% of the bank. Zurabov (known financier, the former head of "Aeroflot" and the bank "Menatep", brother of the Russian Ambassador to Ukraine Mikhail Zurabov) - 8.2%. They have an impact on the activities Vneshprombank, said in its IFRS financial statements. Bedzhamov was a shareholder "Promstroiproekt" company, which owned the share of only 3.3% in the bank. "He was not a co-owner of the bank and could not influence atimaemye bank solutions ", - the lawyer insists Bedzhamova.

One of the VIP-savers Vneshprombank says that was the client of the bank, when he personally met with Marcus. "We were introduced to a person close to the family of Alexander Zhukov (State Duma Vice-Speaker -. RBC)", - he said. About friendship with Marcus Zhukov and members of his family, particularly his wife Catherine, RBC said a source close to the Central Bank, two Vneshprombank lender and banker familiar with Marcus. Zhukov's son Peter previously worked as the bank's vice president, told the VIP-saver. Zhukov himself, Jr. RBC said that did not work in Vneshprombank, but only trained when he was still a student - until 2003. Alexander Zhukov, only acknowledged the existence of a deposit in Vneshprombank. "In my Declaration of 2015 stated that in my Vneshprombank on January 1, 2016 listed 316 thousand rubles, and the wife -.. 2.5 million rubles.", - He said, refusing to comment further. In 2011, according to Zhukov's declaration, he kept on bank accounts of 2.7 million rubles.

Marcus maintained friendly relations with many VIP-clients. As we told RBC familiar Marcus gAva "Transneft" (the company announced that it had on the accounts in Vneshprombank hung 9 billion rubles.) Nikolai Tokarev attended the funeral of her son, who died in the early 2000s. Press-service of "Transneft" declined to comment.

Each year, the bank arranged a holiday on his birthday. "They celebrated in a big way, Marcus invited customers, high-ranking officials at the party could meet Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich," - says Marcus's friend and one of the bank's creditors. A spokesman for Alia Samigullina Dvorkovich did not comment on this information.

Many of the company "moved up" to the bank for large companies out there that are maintained and kept deposits. For example, Welding and Assembly Trust opened the scoring after the "Transneft" a decade ago. "We thought that since" Transneft "places in Vneshprombank means, we should not worry," - says CEO Valentin Belyaev. We hung Trust 3.5 billion rubles in the bank., Is accumulated over many years of working capital, which allowed us to start pageoitelstvo without the involvement of loans.

One customer told RBC that the reasoned that if even half of the assets will be bogus, then the balance sheet of 270 billion rubles. and the volume of deposits of 70 billion rubles. money to repay creditors of the first stage precisely enough.

Who kept the money in Vneshprombank?

As of January 1, 2016. The individual accounts in Vneshprombank was 67.4 billion rubles. Deposits and funds of individual entrepreneurs by 45 billion rubles. fell under the insurance, the amount of retail deposits by 22.4 billion rubles. It was uninsured.

In addition to the money of private investors and companies have lost some banks to lend in the interbank market Vneshprombank. The largest of them, according to the accounting books Vneshprombank on December 8 - "Globex" bank, located in the bankrupt bank of 3 billion rubles. Before he could get the money or not, it is not known: the press service of "Globex" did not respond to a request to RBC. Among the creditor banks also proved Swiss Safra Sarasin - as of December 8, loan Vneshprombank it was 600 million rubles.

Patriarch Recommendations

Kto Larissa Marcus was able to convince senior officials and heads of major companies to give her the money? One of Vneshprombank creditors, who worked with him since the bank's foundation, suggests that an important role in the career of Marcus played the Russian Orthodox Church. In the mid-1990s, the church is in need of money, it was necessary to restore the temples, many businessmen have helped the Church in this, and then received the patronage of the late Patriarch Alexy, and it's easy to make contacts in high places, the source said RBC.

Russian Orthodox Church, and close to it the structure for many years used Vneshprombank account to collect donations. In particular, in 2008 the accounts in this bank church collected money for the victims of the hostilities in South Ossetia. Even earlier, in 2005, the Moscow Patriarchate offered to all who wish to help the victims of the tsunami in South-East Asia, transferring funds to their accounts in Vneshprombank. A fund of "Orthodox Christian Charity" in 2006 organized a collection of donations Lebanese refugees, again through an account in the Outsideshprombanke.

Charity engaged itself Marcus. Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate reported that Marcus and Bedzhamov responded to the call of the head of the ROC to make donations for the victims in South Ossetia. At the February meeting of the Moscow City Court, which upheld the arrest of Marcus, her lawyers presented a positive characteristic Metropolitan of St. Petersburg and Ladoga Varsonofy.

According to a friend Marcus, it is sometimes jokingly referred to the cashier of the patriarch. "We are talking about the late Patriarch Alexy, since Cyril Church became to reduce its presence in the" Vneshprome ", - he said. As previously wrote RBC, at the time of withdrawal of the license in Vneshprombank church kept him 1.5 billion rubles.

RBC source in the Russian Orthodox Church said that the church really started to open accounts at the bank 20 years ago, but the Church of the bank recommended "people from the government."

Press service of the Russian Orthodox Church has refused to answer questions about the RBC connection with the Church of the bank and personally with Marcus.

owners associated with church

At the fringes of the Church organizations Marcuseresekalas with the head of "Transneft" Tokarev. In 2014, donations to the Donbass through Vneshprombank collected Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society (IOPS) with the support of Saints Constantine and Helen. Palestinian society and the fund is not formally associated with the church. The board of trustees consists of IOPS Nikolai Tokarev, as well as the former owner of "Transaero" Olga Pleshakova. In-law Sergey Ryazantsev last served as Vice President Vneshprombank.

As told RBC Vsevolod Chaplin, the Fund Apostles Saints Helen and Constantine had no relation to the ROC. "With the fund manager Anastasia Ositis we have repeatedly talked - she takes part in the activities of the Union of Orthodox women. System communication between us was not - we met at various events, interacted within the Union of Orthodox women. As far as I know, is not an organization that has been systematically established church, "- said Chaplin.

The company "Russdo" majority-owned Ositis, her daughter Irene and her husband Vladimir Fedulova daughter, woundse was one of the participants Vneshprombank. Also, the bank shares in the early 2000s, she owned Fedulova. The founder of the company Ositis ASVT - "Sofrino", the company for the production of church utensils, established Patriarchate. Ositis refused to discuss the topic of her relationship with the bank and personally with Marcus.

As the pyramid grew

Before the 2008 crisis have been Vneshprombank real business, said the VIP-bank depositors. "Bank earned credits, which he gave to business, including related parties, but after the crisis could not be reconstructed, and the customer had to pay," - says depositor. Then, he said, the bank start to build a pyramid: money lenders quenched new obligations to the old. This RBC said another creditor bank.

Indeed, the reports shows that the bank began to rise sharply in 2009 - the year of his assets doubled to 44 billion rubles, according to "Interfax-CEA".. And increased six times since 2010. As a result of almost five years, the bank moved from 136 th place in terms of assets on the 37th. The bank has grown by leaps and bounds, and in the corporate and retail biznese: three years before the revocation of the license volume of loans to businesses, rose 2.5 times, retail portfolio - in 2 times.

The Bank raised funds in all areas: deposits of companies and individuals, loans on the interbank market and the issue of debt securities, the volume of which in December 2015 amounted to 35.7 billion rubles, the Central Bank loans and subordinated loans to foreign companies..

Familiar Marcus and lender Vneshprombank says that Marcus was a personal friend of many of its customers, but not only that attracted VIP-depositors: the bank is not very strictly checked the source of funds, deposit rates were higher than the market, all the major investors had provided an individual approach, and services are not just banking. "Someone Marcus helped to find a doctor abroad, someone gave his plane," - he adds.

Familiar Bedzhamova says that some customers used the bank to withdraw money abroad. "Customers have used the so-called scheme of back-to-back - the client opens a deposit in the bank, then affiliated with the bank issues a loan company, such as a company of his owns "- says RBC a top manager of a bank.

As the collapsed pyramid

November 6, 2015 the Bank of Russia completed a planned inspection of Vneshprombank on which the results of required reserves accrue at 6.2 billion rubles.

The bank had recorded a provision in the amount of only the identified problem assets of the Central Bank. As explained RBC's first deputy chairman Alexei Simanovsky, during the inspection of the Central Bank examines banks' assets selectively: continuous verification would require increasing the inspection resources several times. If the test results are based on an extrapolation of assets not included in the perimeter of the test indicate a threat to the financial stability of the bank, the Central Bank is considering measures its bankruptcy warning, he says.

After accrual of reserves the bank as of December 1 had violated all norms in terms of capital. Then Marcus turned to his friends. As told RBC friends Marcus and clients of the bank, she asked for money from the co-owner of the group BIN Mikhail Shishkhanov, I was going to sell the house. "There was a feeling that the money collected pennies to save the bank", - says Marksmy Marcus.

Shishkhanov offered to give Vneshprombank 5-10 billion rubles. the security of the loan portfolio, but when the staff came to check BIN portfolio, were in shock. it turned out that as collateral, they could take loans only 600 million rubles, RBC says a source close to the BIN group. The deal fell through. Press service of the BIN group does not comment on this information.

Part of the money Marcus found another of his friend - O1 Group owner Boris Mints, with whom they were acquainted for about ten years. O1 put in bank subordinated debt to 3 billion rubles. under 12% per annum. These funds were enough to restore standards.

Bank balance looked good, most of the assets were loans to trading companies and bank to VIP-clients, an impressive amount lying in Citibank. "No one could imagine that there is a hole of more than 200 billion rubles.", - Tells the familiar Mintz. In addition, this O1 Group already owned bank bonds to 7 billion rubles. These securities group bought, deceived a yield of 17% in April 2015. "Securities were to offer a year, so the group was Zainers, if not in the bank's salvation, or at least to extend his life until April 2016 ", - says the familiar Mintz.

After the appearance of the interim administration in Vneshprombank O1 Group tried to negotiate a reorganization with creditors. "Central Bank said that the bank rescue will cost 300 billion rubles, but it's too expensive, -. Says Mintz familiar. - Rehabilitation scheme involving creditors assumed that the Central Bank provides to reorganize 150-170 billion rubles. under 1%. The remaining amount will gather bank creditors. "

According Simanovskiy possibility of readjustment Vneshprombank using voluntary bail-in was discussed, but the scope of the problems at the bank "exclude interest of creditors to implement it." In other words, lenders are not able to negotiate and collect the required amount.

According ledger Vneshprombank December 8, most of its assets were loans to companies - 173 billion rubles, of which 107.3 billion rubles.. - Loans to affiliated companies without collateral. At 25 billion rubles. the bank issued loans to affiliated companies, but with the guarantee of deposits. Among its bank borrowers were sos company, as "Transaero", JSC "Rosgeologiya", as well as many builders - LLC "Imperio-Grand", JSC "Glavmosstroy", LLC "Stroynovatsiya" (owned by "Amount" group). The use of credit in Vneshprombank confirmed only "Rosgeologiya", the rest of the company did not respond to a request to RBC. "Cooperation volumes were small, and now all debts repaid," - said Adviser to the General Director of JSC "Rosgeologiya" Anton Sergeyev.

As of December 8 Vneshprombank showed very low late on corporate loans - only 956 million rubles. (0.6% of the corporate portfolio).

Most of the corporate portfolio - is loans to companies that are not leading real activity, but there are also those for which payments are said Simanovskiy. The volume of retail loans, according to the balance Vneshprombank amounted to 16.5 billion rubles, most of these loans -. It loans issued on the VIP-clients.

According Simanovskiy, real assets in the bank -. About 30-40 billion rubles, mainly corporate loanyou. However, one of the creditors of the bank estimates the real assets of only 8-9 billion rubles.

Where I viewed CB?

Customers Vneshprombank met by RBC, are set to the same question: how the Central Bank for several years did not see his eyes growing pyramid?

"Is the Central Bank is not seen as one-day firms were taken tens of millions of dollars?" - Asked the chairman of the Federation Council Valentina Matvienko, the representatives of the Central Bank at the meeting of Interregional Banking Council of the Federation Council on February 29. "We have to be blindfolded," - she was indignant.

In response Simanovskiy said that the Central Bank carries out an internal investigation regarding the situation with Vneshprombank. "While there are no persons who have suffered for this responsibility in the Bank of Russia", - he said.

It tells Simanovskiy RBC, in Vneshprombank were testing in 2011 and 2014, and they showed that the bank loan is not leading the real activity of the enterprise. Typically, in such a way heralded withdrawal of funds from the bank. Then the Bank of Russia could not require the establishment of reserves for these loans, and the bank to insistshaft, the activities of these borrowers is real, Simanovskiy explains. In 2013, there was a normative act, which gives the Central Bank the right to demand the creation of reserves for such loans, if they were issued after 2013. And in 2015, the regulator has received the right to demand the creation of reserves for all technical credits, regardless of when they were issued. Accordingly, the Central Bank and made Vneshprombank create these reserves.

In addition, the bank's management, according to Simanovskiy, urged supervision, raising concerns about the Central Bank loans are secured by third-party guarantees for 50 billion rubles., Then in the bank statements reflected the amount allegedly received guarantees and sureties in the amount of 152 billion rubles. The bank deposits are shown as "safe deposit", that is, as the contract with a particular mode of access. This made it difficult to check, but she eventually showed that the bank documents with questionable legal status in the amount of 25 billion rubles., Says Simanovskiy. "These documents were definitely not" security deposits "and could not be considered as providing" - he said.

Another scheme VneshprombAnka associated with phony assets in Citi. The Bank has shown on the balance sheet of more than 50 billion rubles. account in the US Citibank. In reality, there turned out to be 250 million rubles. According Simanovskiy, this trick is clearly different criminal character and special adventurism: false reporting was evident.

Vneshprombank provided "SWIFT message" from the bank with an indication of the amount as in its balance sheet. According Simanovskiy when confidence in the bank and its management has been undermined, the regulator demanded immediate transfer funds to Russian banks, he pointed out, the bank failed to comply with the requirement. The Interim Administration has established the true picture - the real amount on correspondent accounts in foreign banks and falsification "SWIFT message". A source close to the Central Bank, said that the Bank has hidden servers for the production of false documents on behalf of the international banks.

Many VIP-investors Vneshprombank proved its borrowers, the amount of bank debt exceeded the amount of the deposit. In particular, Belyaeva of Welding and Assembly Trust found that hung on her loan twice the amount of its Depositorya.

Where did the money go

Forbes wrote about yachts Bedzhamova, its share in the luxury five-star hotel Badrutt's Palace Hotel in Switzerland luxury real estate in Europe, the USA, etc. It follows from the claim that one of the creditors Vneshprombank - Panamanian company Panabroker - sued New York, Marcus owns eight companies in New York, owning real estate in different areas of New York. In this paper (available at the RBC) said that the company created from 2008 to 2015, real estate, which is owned by the company, located on West End Avenue, Broad Street, Riverside Boulevard and other streets. Panabroker requires Vneshprombank $ 1.57 million plus interest and argues that the real estate in New York was bought with the money derived from Vneshprombank.

"It's hard to believe that all the 200 billion rubles. went to the yachts, real estate and beautiful life, perhaps, money flowed somewhere else, it will find out the investigation and the regulator ", - said a source in the Central Bank.