RBC investigation: what the Russian trade unions live upon

The Federation of Independent Trade Unions will celebrate May Day by conducting a march in support of the workers. As clarified by RBC, the budget of the largest trade union organization in the country is measured in billions of rubles, much of which is earned on the property, inherited from the Soviet Union for free.
Origin source
In February 2016 the most famous resort of Crimea found a new owner. Sanatorium "Foros", next to which was the residence where, during 1991 coup was imprisoned Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, for 1.4 billion rubles. I bought the Federation of Trade Unions of Tatarstan.

Where did the little known non-governmental organization from Kazan that kind of money, they could not even understand their bosses in Moscow. "When I saw the news, we do not even have its first reprint. Call and specify whether it is true, "- says RBC employee the central office of the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia (FITUR, Tatar organization includes in its structure).

In Kazan, the union leaders reassured: that kind of money in the organization, which mainly lives off dues of workers, not really, she gave the operator for the purchase of "Foros", received funds from the major regional companies. "What sort of company is - KamAZ," Tatneft ", petrochemical production (included in the group of" Taif "companies -. RBC), etc." - lists, bending his fingers, FITUR leader Mikhail Shmakov, talking with RBC in its Singleinternet on Leninsky Prospekt, 42. The building according to the Soviet tradition and is now called the Palace of Trade Unions Labor.

On sanctions imposed on the buyer's famous Crimean sanatorium "Foros" would insist Ukrainian billionaire Igor Kolomoisky, who before joining the peninsula to Russia belonged to the residence of the President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev. Driving buy "Foros", built around Tatarstan union could secure the sponsors of the deal, sources said RBC.

Shmakov did not hide his satisfaction deal, calling it "brilliant." RBC source in the executive committee of FITUR and the source close to the government of Tatarstan, said that the scheme of "Foros" purchase with the assistance of the trade unions has been used to the true buyer does not hit the sanctions lists of the European Union and the United States.

"In order to be an operator in such transactions, you need to have very good relations with the authorities and big business, so they thought you were his. You have to be loyal to the structure, "- explains RBC a source close to the leadership of the FNPR.

FITUR has long worked with Vlastyami and business. Heir to the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (Trade Unions), the federation is proud to be the largest union of workers in Russia: 122 affiliates and more than 20 million members.

What lives the largest trade union organization in the country?

Budget unions

Despite the federal scale, FITUR - very closed structure, do not publish financial statements. "This data is only available for members of the executive committee, and the documents that contain specific figures, distributing not all, but some give and all without numbers," - says an employee of the central apparatus.

A document describing the FNPR structure of the budget as a percentage, is at the disposal of RBC. From this it follows that the federation only two items of income - membership fees and "other income", behind which lurk mainly revenue from commercial activities.

Fees - 70% of revenues, says the document, 30% - "other income". Structure harder expenses: 40.5% is spent on organizational and business activities, 46.6% - at FUNDINGMaintenance FITUR institutions, 6% - in the so-called solidarity fund (to carry out protest actions, payment of wages to workers during periods of inactivity, and one-time assistance in case of accidents at work), even 6.3% - Contributions to international organizations, which is FITUR and 0.4% - for the maintenance of the Auditing Commission. In other words, almost 90% of spending - is the maintenance of its own existence.

The structure of income in a conversation with RBC confirms Shmakov (about the cost, he says). FITUR budget for 2016, according to the trade union leader, a little more than 200 million rubles. RBC source close to the Kremlin administration who is familiar with the work of trade unions, confirms that the annual budget is relatively small FITUR: "A few years ago it did not exceed $ 1 million."

The amount looks strange when you consider the number of people who give nationwide membership fees. The income of members of the FITUR trade unions at various levels - from the "primary organizations" in the factories to the central committees - incomparably more than the budget of the parent organization.

In the majority of the membership of trade unions Russianinstal lment - 1% of the salary. If you operate with the official view of trade union members (according Shmakov, it is about 20.7 million people, taking into account 3-4 million students and pensioners, who do not pay premiums) and the size of the average wage in the country (according to the Federal State Statistics Service, as of February 2016 - 33 9 thousand. rub.), the fund membership fees all unions affiliated to the FITUR, will be about 5.7 billion rubles. monthly, or 67.9 billion rubles. in year.

But not everything comes to Moscow. "Money is smeared on the entire structure," - said an employee of the central apparatus. "Primary organizations" leave themselves 50 to 95% of the collected, the source explains. Remaining share the central and territorial structures.

At that these billions are spent?

Expenditure part

Freed trade unionists - this term with a Soviet-era law calls those members of trade unions, from executives to secretaries, who are "exempt" from working directly in the company. The salary they usually pay union itself. Interviewees RBC executives union associations argue that the salaries of "liberation" could gos half of the budget of each organization. For example, out of 66 million rubles., Which liberated more than 60 employees, provides an example of the head of the association Ulyana Mikhailov in 2015 was the budget of the Pskov Federation of Trade Unions, nearly 30 million spent on salaries and bonuses.

At FITUR refused to disclose on request RBC numbers released workers in the country. In open sources there is a mention of the number of elected trade union leaders - such, according to the decision of the executive committee of the FITUR 2011 it was 13.5 thousand.

But this is only a small part of the union army. According to the same 2011, there were 191 thousand. Profyacheek. "At least one free worker appears in the cell in which at least 300 members - the director of" trade union centers "(engaged in using trade unionists) Yuri Milovidov. - By my count, at least a quarter of these cells has at least one trade unionists, where a number of employees, think of the number of the country from 50 thousand to 70 thousand people "...

Interlocutor in the executive committee of FNPR said that unionized employees less -. About 40 thousand, but even if you takethis assessment, it appears that the FITUR - one of the largest employers in the country (for comparison, at AvtoVAZ, the largest Russian car enterprise, the end of 2015 worked about 50 thousand people.).

The average salary at the trade unionists, according to RBC employees surveyed FITUR, slightly behind the average salary in the country - about 25 thousand rubles.. It turns out that the wage fund of trade unionists across the country can be up to 1 billion rubles. per month.

The exact number of employees of the central apparatus of FITUR is unknown - in the federation refused to answer this question by RBC. A source in the central office said that employees not more than 120 people. The average salary of their small, but twice as high as the national average, says another interlocutor RBC, - at the level of 60-70 thousand rubles..

Shmakov his salary declined to disclose.

28 km from Moscow

In suburban village Chigasovo, in the exclusive area on Rublevskoe highway, there is a house and a plot of land (516.2 and 1798 sq. M respectively) belonging to the full namesake son Viktor Shmakov. The son of the Chairman of the FITUR does business: according to SPARK,He is the general director of LLC "Art Mix", which deals with the organization of festivals and events. As the ads on the site cyan, several cottages in Chigasovo area of ​​about 500 square meters. m on 15 acres is now estimated at about 36 million rubles. Mikhail Shmakov forwarded questions on the house and land supplies in Chigasovo to the owner, which is listed in the Unified State Register.

Russian Federation resorts

FITUR has acquired the Property in the turmoil of the early 1990s, when the usual crumbling institutions of Soviet power. Then the young trade union leader Mikhail Shmakov, before a rocket engineer, has managed to win the authority of the Russian leaders and lead the new organization, which immediately announced itself as a legal successor of the All. Legally, the property was secured for FITUR in 1992 by a special agreement. Now this property - the source of those "other income" of trade unions, revenue from commercial activities.

The exact number of houses and plots, donated the property passed into the FITUR, contained in the annexes to the agreement of 1992, which is held in the Federationbig secret - for 25 years of the FITUR it has not been published (RBC also refused to provide it).

Milovidov, worked for many years in the structure of FITUR, argues that the Federation in 2582 passed the property: 678 health centers, 131 Hotel, 568 stadiums and more than 500 pioneer camps. How much of this remains at the disposal of the Federation, it is unclear, but informally FITUR say that over the years the unions have lost about 60% of the property that was in the All at the time of the collapse of the Union.

According to the chief of the trade union of the tourist agency "Profkurort", is now available to the trade unions have exactly 374 resorts (sanatoria, boarding houses, holiday homes and camps) in 65 regions - from the Far East to Kaliningrad.

The most liquid objects FITUR - in the south of Russia and in Moscow. Especially unions cherished property in the Caucasian Mineral Waters (CMS). On the trade union sanatorium for more than a quarter of the so-called hospital bed capacity of all the resorts in the CMS, they can take 160 thousand. People annually. "Shmakov personally engaged KMV, it's his project," - explains the source of the Republic of BelarusFor the central office of the federation.

To manage all objects CMS Federation in 2005 established the LLC "Resort management (holding)", which includes 22 of the sanatorium and dispensary, including balneo and mud baths, pump room, boiler three associations, kindergarten, library, repair and construction company, and carpool. The share of the Federation in the holding - almost 85%, even more than 15% belong to the union of trade unions of Stavropol Territory, which is also part of FITUR. Total revenue for the holding in 2015 - 5.4 billion rubles, net profit -.. 294 million rubles, told RBC director of "Recreation Management" Julia Korogodova.

Another business card FITUR - hotels and resorts in Sochi (RBC count, there are at FITUR and its "daughters" 26 buildings and seven plots of land). With Sochi connected the largest project FITUR in recent years - the reconstruction of three hotels for the Winter Olympics. "Then all surprised that Shmakov decided to participate in large-scale construction site along with Potanin, Deripaska (billionaires Vladimir Potanin and Oleg Deripaska -. RBC) and other major businesses. It was tough hocksene task is to catch whatever was for the Olympics in that, and this rigidity has led to the fact that poor FITUR almost the first surrendered their facilities, "- says RBC a source close to the central unit of the federation.

Own money from the trade unions were not, he said the source, so took out a loan. Lend to the public Vshenshekonombanke (VEB), which was the main source of funding for the Olympic projects, says RBC another source close to the FITUR. Shmakov has confirmed that the loan was in the VEB RBC explained that the money allocated to three joint-stock companies "Adlerkurort", "Clinical sanatorium" Metallurg "and" Profkurort. "Svetlana" Sanatorium. All these organizations manage trade union facilities in Sochi.

According Shmakov, the loan amounted to 1.5 billion rubles., But "the resort management" RBC clarified that the loan was 2 billion. The total investment in the "Olympic" hotel eventually reached 2.7 billion, explained in the "management of the resort" , without specifying where did another 700 million. as collateral for the loan, as said Shmakov, FITUR has been forced to pass & laquo; Adlerkurort ". Shmakov says that now all profits renovated hotels have to pay for credit. But in current conditions to pay FITUR do not want - Now borrowers tell VEB, send a request to restructure the loan.

With the money VEB sanatorium "Svetlana" was converted into a hotel complex Sea Galaxy Congress & SPA and repaired sanatorium "Metallurg" and one of the buildings "Adlerkurort". The 18-storey Sea Galaxy 690 seats. In high season, a standard room for one person, according to the price list, will cost 5300 rubles. Proceeds of JSC "Profkurort. Sanatorium "Svetlana", which manages the hotel reconstructed in 2014 amounted to almost 197.3 million rubles, net profit -. Just over 178.6 million.

The ownership structure of trade union property is extremely confusing and opaque. Itself, without engaging in commercial activities, FITUR has established dozens of companies that manage its facilities throughout the country (only in Krasnodar "krai trade union council" were recorded at different times of 74 subsidiaries). However, many of them, as shown byanalysis of the "sanatorium" companies in the CMS and the Kuban, closed structure: over 30 - are closed joint-stock companies, others - institutions. If we calculate the revenues of these companies for the period from 2010 to 2014 will amount nearly 45 billion rubles.

From before the funeral service funeral service

In late June 2015, the trade unions belonging to the House of Unions on the Big Dmitrovka held another memorial service - said goodbye to former Russian Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov. At the ceremony came, and President Vladimir Putin. After nearly three weeks, the permanent director of the House of Unions Alexander Bulgakov detained operatives - in his office next door to the State Duma.

According to the Investigative Committee, Bulgakov was detained at the time when he received 308 thousand. Rub. from the head of another commercial organization - OOO "Refreshment House of Unions" (BDS). Bulgakov allegedly extorted money as 10% of the value of BNS held banquets and receptions. Six months later, Bulgakov was sentenced to four years in prison.

RBC source close to FITUR, does not rule out that the two events - mourningoh Primakov and the arrest of Bulgakov - there is a connection. Organizer's memorial service, and this Presidential Affairs, allegedly not satisfied with the initial price, which Bulgakov required to pay for the ceremony (following public procurement website, the event ultimately a cost of 1.222 million rubles.), Says a source. At Bulgakov complained to the police. Interlocutor RBC in the central office of FITUR has confirmed that this version of the heard. Shmakov also acknowledged that there was a version of the discontent price requiem, but, he says, in the end it was not confirmed. According to him, at a memorial service Bulgakov Primakov talks proceeded from his usual cost of such an event. "It all started with a memorial service Shvetsova (Lyudmila Shvetsova, former State Duma deputy and former vice-mayor of Moscow), it cost 4 million rubles., The Moscow city government paid the money, because there are so many such events. He [Bulgakov] this price and offered "- now says Shmakov.

House of Unions, like the majority of trade union facilities in the capital, owned by the Moscow Federation of Trade Unions (FIP), which is part of FITUR. MFP also belong to the hotelcomplex "Izmailovo", a cycle track in "Krylatskoye" Olympic Center named Znamensky pool "Trud", sports complex "Iskra-2", sanatorium "Sokolniki" and "Peredelkino" Olympic Center "Glider" in Khimki.

The most profitable asset in Moscow - hotel complex "Izmailovo". OAO "TGC" Izmailovo ", which manages the building" Gamma "," Beta "," Delta "and" Vega "Property Fund of Moscow Trade Unions owns 75% of shares in FITUR - 7% (the rest - the members of the Board of Directors).

Total revenue of the holding "Izmailovo" hotel in 2014 - more than 3.25 billion rubles, net profit -.. More than 240 million fully owned by the MFP is TGC "Alpha", which controls another hotel "Izmailovo", is not part in the same name of. .. The proceeds of "Alpha" in 2014 - more than 770 million rubles, net profit - more than 33 million directly FITUR in Moscow belongs not so much: the Palace of Culture in the Leninsky Prospekt, where is the central office of the organization, located close to GOSTInit "Sputnik" depot near the metro station "Kaluzhskaya", the building of the Academy of Labor and Social Affairs in the west of Moscow, his own studio and clinic.

At public expense

Began his career in the Soviet era have known strange sounding word "social insurance." This is money the Social Insurance Fund (SIF), which until the early 2000s and managed trade unions. By "social insurance" paid vouchers to children's summer camps, and workers and pensioners - in the sanatorium. Then FSS taken over by the state, but left the sanatorium for the trade unions, provided that the latter is another way to earn money.

"When the state does not have enough of its health centers to provide treatment for all those who are on it can count on the law, it directs people to the union health resort", - explained RBC scheme of relations with the state director of "Recreation Management" FITUR Mykola Murashko.

Judging by the public procurement, state contracts for the unions - a major source of income. In six years - from 2010 to 2016 - "Resort Holding" realized FITURgovernment contracts worth more than 4.8 billion rubles. Resorts of the Krasnodar "krai trade union council" in the same time permits sold about 4 billion rubles.

Earn on state contracts and "subsidiaries" FITUR unions. MFP and its member organizations, for example, for the same six years received state contracts for more than 617 million rubles, Leningrad Federation of Trade Unions -. 242 million, and she FITUR - 32 million.

What gives the state FITUR in response?

The required organization

Federation to fulfill its main function - protecting labor rights and the control of the owners, no doubt Shmakov. For 16 years, the government has a special body - the tripartite commission on regulation of social and labor relations. At one table sat ministers, employers (RSPP, "Support of Russia") and the trade unions. An official of the Kremlin, however, calls not to exaggerate the role of the commission: "Some protocols are huge meetings, but on this protocol and all stops: the state conducts its own policy." Participants of the meeting echoed him: "The real impact on social and economic policy mozhet union, which, for example, is able to bring people to the street. Because of this, on the fundamental issues for the FNPR, for example, for the same pensions, the federation is very difficult to hit the table with his fist, and to say that will be the way they say. "

From Rosstat data suggest: in the 1990 year was held a few hundred or even thousands of strikes recorded, then declined sharply in the 2000s, their number - to a few per year. One of the reasons - the tightening of procedures for the strike, which was described in the new Labour Code (LC), which came into force in 2002. One of the authors was the secretary of TC FITUR, is now the vice-speaker of the State Duma Andrey Isaev. "The law on strikes - prohibitive," - says the chairman of the Confederation of Labour of Russia (KTR), Boris Kravchenko. CTE, as well as a number of other independent trade unions, such as the cells at AvtoVAZ and the Ford factory, appeared in the second half of the 2000s as a counterweight to cooperating with the authorities of FITUR.

The Kremlin appreciate that FITUR does not conduct strikes and cooperates with the "United Russia" (Isayev - a member of the General Council of the party - RBC.): "FITUR - constructive critki. Some other organizations task - to bring people to the protests. At FITUR another position: to solve the problem before the people take to the streets ", - said an employee of the presidential administration.

* * *

In May 2011, FITUR has become one of several organizations on the basis of which was created by the All-Russian People's Front (ONF), headed by Vladimir Putin. Now ONF - only comparable to FITUR in the number of regional offices of the Russian public organization. And, like FITUR, the front does not reveal your budget.