- This is an object "G"? mines of Directors Meeting will be here? And then I lost in your passwords, - asks the director of one of the mines in the Donetsk People's Republic (DNR) from the guard with a gun at the entrance to the Donetsk business center.
Meeting coal miners waged personally head DNR Alexander Zakharchenko, held in a tense atmosphere.
- Where are we "Trudovs'ka" Director-leader-mine? - Asks Zakharchenko.
- Sergei Nikolaevich took yesterday in the "basement", was charged with illegal possession of weapons and forging documents, - explains Deputy DNI coal Alexander Potapenko.
- Perhaps there was a pad. Topaz [callsign Ignat Kromskom, one of the field commanders DNR] to call, say, to let go - holds court Zakharchenko.
With this unusual meeting in Donetsk, began an investigation RBC - what money live two unrecognized territory in eastern Ukraine, which before the war was giving 16% of Ukrainian GDP.
Now in territory of Donbass controlled by militias, live2-2.5 million people, of whom about 1 million people - pensioners, RBC says a source close to the leadership of the militia (before the start of the fighting in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions of Ukraine have lived about 6.5 million people). Similar data are given in the reports of the Russian Institute of Strategic Studies (RISS), which is preparing for the Russian government analysis on the situation in the Donbass (RBC managed to get acquainted with the documents) is now in the Donbass, there are around 3 million people, most of whom - pensioners and socially unprotected population. The most wealthy and qualified part of the population had left, one of the authors of the report wrote.
The pensioner, an employee of one of the museums in Donetsk, do not receive a salary or from Ukraine or from the NPT in August of last year, Ukrainian pension last paid in October, but to withdraw money from the card did not work, the majority of ATMs did not work (in November, Ukraine announced an economic and transport blockade republics continued payment of pensions only to those who moved to the territory controlled by Ukraine).
notMotrya on the introduction of the DNI of the death penalty for the most serious crimes, which include looting in the country recorded a lot of theft of property.
By March of the DNI authorities she received a pension only once - UAH 1,000 (the average pension in Ukraine in 2014 -1670 UAH). In the morning she has breakfast in the social dining room, which is open to residents of neighboring houses owner of one of the hotels in Donetsk, and in the evening prepares the house of the products that received each week from the humanitarian fund "Help" businessman Rinat Akhmetov.
The DNI size of payments - 1000 UAH, which for five months (October to March) failed to pay twice. The LC allowance is 1,800 USD, they paid only once.
According to RBC estimates, both the Republic between November and March were spent on social benefits about 1.9 billion USD (3.8 billion rubles -. Hereinafter calculations of exchange rates, approved by the DNR).
But everything changed in the spring. In late March the head of the republic at the same time signed a decree on the beginning of the regular payment of pensions in the pre-war size. But instead of the usual pension hryvnia began vydavatin rubles at the rate of 1 to 2 (1 = 2 Ukrainian hryvnia Russian ruble).
Shortly before this guide DNR and LNR declared insufficient cash hryvnia in the region and created a multi-currency zone, which together with the Ukrainian currency began to walk the ruble, dollar and euro. You can pay in shops in these currencies, calculate tax and pay wages and pensions.
"Currency is dependent on the money supply, which comes into the country. We have seen that we have the necessary weight in rubles, and began payments. Probably will go to the large amount of dollars, then we will pay the dollar ", - says RBC Deputy Finance Minister Oksana Taran DNI. Whence came the ruble mass, not explained in the republic.
From the end of May the two republics have started to pay more and benefit - the different categories of persons with disabilities to pregnant women. For example, in April LC planned to spend on pensions to 1.7 billion rubles., Said the head LNR Igor Carpenter. In May, for the same amount it will need about 250 million rubles. to pay sotsposoby, said a source close to the head of the LC.
Less certainty to public sector wages and Startedtnikam SOEs. The LC planning to start paying salaries to state employees in May, despite the wage arrears from December to April. "While we are told:" Be patient, "are trying to adjust to to tolerate. Sometimes a person comes, he says there is no six hryvnia to come to work ... "- tells the employee of his administration head of one of the ministries LC.
In Donetsk, public sector wages were given only once - at the end of October, before the election of deputies of the DNI of the People's Council, doctors and teachers received a salary for September. When will these payments is unknown. In April Zakharchenko promised that the payment of state employees will not begin before the end of May. But in mid-June, it has not begun.
Since the beginning of active shelling of cities under the control of separatists, Ukrainian banks have closed their offices.
Rate the total amount of payments to pensioners and public sector workers are not taken none of the officials. "It is possible to say when the budget is passed. Now we are working on the situation, depending on the income tax, "- explains the mister of Finance LC Eugene Maynulov. The DNR budget for 2015 is also not accepted, and the distribution of funds takes place on a temporary position, explained RBC in the Ministry of Taxes and Duties. Read the RBC could not be a temporary situation.
According to estimates of the editorial board, only for the payment of pensions and social benefits of the Republic must spend at least 4.6 billion rubles. per month (55.2 billion rubles. per year). Where did they take and take the money?
Does "common pot" Cooks?
Donetsk and Lugansk argue that money in retirement were due to taxes.
"Entrepreneurs have begun to slowly work and take taxes. They began to collect the cash - in safes in the box, then it goes to the "common pot" and is divided into the territory, "- describes the budget process the head of the Pension Fund LC Tatiana Vasilieva. In terms of technology that's right: the arrival of the budget and consumption can easily fix the eye. In the main office of the Central Bank of the DNI in Donetsk in several rows collector car parked with dashed logos of various Ukrainian banks and jeeps around whichtoyat armed men in camouflage uniforms and a woman with sports bags in hands. It accountants district offices of the bank and budgetary institutions came for the cash for the issue of pensions and salaries. "While we are in a military context restore the banking system [...] we do not have the cash. That has to travel to Donetsk, "- says one of the women in the queue.
Much more difficult question is whether tax revenues sufficient to DNR and LNR to all social benefits. The governments of both territories refused to disclose the exact amount of RBC revenues to the national budget, saying only that the month-to-month amount grow.
The tax system of the Republic is very simple. The LC - from 3 to 8% of turnover, depending on the type of activity. The DNI business can choose one of two options for paying taxes: 20% of net income, or 2% of turnover. The income tax rate for citizens installed at the Russian level of 13%.
Entrepreneurs buy the patent with a fixed rate. The DNI sellers in the market are obliged to pay 150 UAH per month, taxi drivers - 170 UAH, the drivers of minibuses - 510 UAH. The largest collection is providedsmall mine owners (Ukraine-Copanca mines deemed illegal) - 20 thousand UAH.. The LC businesses that sell food products, are required to pay monthly 600 UAH, for the sale of non-food goods and services - 300 UAH per month.
The idea of the amount of the potential income tax charges can be obtained from some public documents breakaway republics. According to the report of the Ministry of Economic Development of the DNI, in 2014 the volume of realization of production enterprises in the territory of the DNI, fell by 32.8%, from 317 billion to 213 billion USD. The main source of tax revenues to the DNI is a tax on turnover of enterprises - 2%, so if in 2015 the volume of realization of production in the country will not change, then the treasury DNI will receive no more than 4.27 billion USD (8.54 billion rubles.) Per year.
Donetsk Ukrainian office of the State Bank "Ukreksbanka" took the staff of the Central Bank of the national DNI.
The authorities of the small towns of Donbass more frank than ministers. "On March 1 re [in the city] 401 passed in 1810 and the company owners. Forecast volume implation products in 2015 - 5.62 billion USD. If we consider only companies that are re-registered in the republic, - the volume of sales of about 0.3 billion USD (600 mln.) In 2015 ", - says the mayor of the fifth largest city of the DNI of the population - Khartsyzsk - Vasily Tkachuk at a meeting of the government.
While the documents for re-registration has not submitted any of the major enterprises in the city - Harcizskoye Pipe Plant (part of the "Metinvest" Akhmetov), Zuevskaya thermal power plant (part of DTEK Akhmetov), factory of steel cables "Silur" (owned Odessa businessman Vladimir Nemirovskii), foundry "Armlit-Donbass" (owned by a member of the party "The Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc" Fedor Tsymbalov). Without reregistration of enterprises Khartsyzsk tax revenue will not exceed USD 0.5 million (1 million rubles.) Per month. This retirement is not enough, where's the money?
Oligarchs in "Somalia"
In supermarkets "Brusnichka" unlike other stores in Donetsk was always lively: 10-15 people were in each fund, but it was svobDnyan Cash accepted in cash, for which the employee usually solves a crossword puzzle and looking enviously at the other cashiers, who hit the purchase, begin to enter data into the laptop. Popular Insurance Fund operates on an Internet banking: the cashier at the payment system site introduces the details of the card, the customer comes to an SMS message from a bank with a confirmation code, which he informs the seller to complete the payment. Since November 2014 DNR and LNR stopped working all ATMs and acquiring terminals in stores. However, many residents continue to receive the salary on the card, including the employees of enterprises of group "System Capital Management" (SCM), the richest Ukrainian businessman Rinat Akhmetov (201-th place in the list of the richest people in the world according to Forbes, the state - $ 6.7 billion). "On the territory, not under the control of Ukraine, in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in the enterprises of SCM Group employs more than 70 thousand. Man. Group companies to pay wages on the cards, "- said RBC's press service.
SCM Akhmetov - the largest owner of companies under totrolled DNR and LNR. In the Donbas he owned dozens of different assets - from steel mills to kiosks. "Brusnichka" also belongs to Akhmetov, but in June it closed.
Despite the transport blockade, SCM finds ways to supply their factories with raw materials and export products. In January-February Avdeevka coke plant produced 186 thousand tons of products, Yenakiyevo Steel Plant -.. 214 tons, according to the statements of the holding "Metinvest", included in the SCM. Through the front line passes through the raw material by rail spans Yasinovataya - Skotovataya towards Dnepropetrovsk and Yuzhnodonbasskaya - Elenovka in the direction of Mariupol, where the port and the large metallurgical plants Akhmetov. Railway communication is suffering from explosions ways, but generally works even during the war.
Key additions to the economy of the DNI and the LC go by big business, expressed version of high-ranking Russian official. Trouble-free trade provided lobbying efforts remain in Kiev business owners, many of which laneeizbralis parliament.
Practice shows that most of the enterprises belonging to both Ukrainian and Russian big business and is not closed during the fighting, really make their financial contribution to the economy of Donbass. However, most of the big business limited issue of staff salaries and humanitarian assistance, and only among the oligarchs units pay taxes to the budget of the DNI and the LC, and therefore, their money can not go on welfare payments.
Late last year, the armed men were taken a few days in the trunk of a car director "Donetskkoks" Plant (part of the "Metinvest") Andrei Shabanov, requiring the company to re-register in the DNI, told RBC is one of the Donetsk businessmen and confirmed a source close to the SCM. However, this did not happen.
"Taxes are paid in the Ukraine, as it is regrettable", - confirms the head of the Administration for Industry head Yevgeny DNI Lavrenov. "DNI fears much pressure on Akhmetov and other large enterprises, medium-sized businesses but is often a nightmare, threatening the directors' basement & raquo ;, if they do not pay taxes to the republic, "- explains a source close to the leadership of the republic. One of the largest, but the disgraced Ukrainian businessmen, who left a lot of assets in Donetsk, now calls these areas "Somalia", referring to the danger of doing it affairs, saying his two friends.
For some time a major taxpayer in the DNI was a Russian millionaire Viktor Nusenkis. Natives of the Donets Basin and the Orthodox patron Nusenkis that in the 1990s he moved to Moscow, owned by holding "Donetskstal", including Donetsk Metallurgical Plant (DMZ), two coke plants in Makeyevka and Yasinovataya and mine "Intercession", located on the territory controlled by Ukraine. "Donetsksteel", as well as businesses Akhmetov able to equip their factories with raw materials and export of finished products, and during the fighting. In the autumn of the DMZ, deprived of raw materials, which is supplied from Krivoy Rog, established supplies from Russia: the factory buys ore from "Karelian pellet" (included in the group of "Severstal" Alexey Mordashov). And the head of the Russian raw materialsozilos Ukraine railway cars not through the border with the Rostov region, and in Kharkov, RBC says Lavrenov. A production was exported via Ukrainian ports in Mariupol and Berdyansk.
In January 2015, the Ukrainian Security Service (SBU) has opened criminal proceedings against "Donetsksteel" into the "financing of terrorist organizations." According to the SBU data factories "Donetsksteel" one of the first re-registered by the rules of the NPT and quarterly listed in its budget of 1 million USD. Soon after the commencement of enterprise Nusenkis business in the Donbass were stopped. Representatives of the "Donetsksteel" declined to comment for this article.
The LC is stopped virtually all large enterprises. The most modern in Eastern Europe, Alchevsk Metallurgical Plant and Coke Plant (owned by the group "Industrial Union of Donbass", which is controlled by Russian investors led by businessman Alexander Katunin, 49% - a former businessman Sergei Taruta and Oleg Mkrtchyan governor of the Donetsk region) have been stoppeds in August, 2014. The largest venture capital LC - "Luganskteplovoz" (part of the Russian "Transmashholding") stopped working in February 2015 due to problems with the supply of engines from Germany and the United States. At the next meeting of shareholders on June 15, "Luganskteplovoz" is planning to discuss the issue of re-registration of the enterprise in the city of Severodonetsk, which is on the territory controlled by Ukraine, according to the agenda of the meeting, published on the company website. In "Transmashholding" declined to comment.
The visiting government Donbass
Officially, Russia is assisting the Donbas, delivering products and materials needed humanitarian convoys. However, informal assistance and participation in the economic life of the DNR and LNR go far beyond humanitarian operations.
How much is the humanitarian assistance
Since the beginning of hostilities in the Donbass Russia sent to 29 humanitarian convoys with food and building materials. According to the report, the Control Center restoration of the DNI, the republic on June 11 (4-29 minutes gumkonvoi) received from the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations 17 932 tons of humanitarian aid, of which 7840 tons of food, 2,070 tons of construction materials, 1,385 tons of fuel and lubricants, 1031 tons of crop and fertilizer materials. Also from the Russian republic received electrical equipment, medicines, school books, 39 tons of newsprint and 30 kg of ballet pointe shoes.
"Aid is considered to be in meters, pieces, rather than the amount of money", - he explained RBC presidential adviser Sergei Glazyev. Russian Emergency Situations Ministry has no data on the costs of gumkonvoi. Authority is only concerned with the delivery: they gave us the goods we brought him "- says RBC deputy head of the press service of the Ministry of Alexey Vagutovich. "At convoys spent hundreds of millions of rubles, funds are allocated according to the government order. Products are selected according to the request of DNR and LC ", - told RBC in December, the source close to the Russian government.
Since December 2014 the theme of Donbass is the responsibility of the Interdepartmental Commission for the provision of humanitarian support to affected areas south-eastern regions of Donetsk and Lugansk regions of Ukraine (IAC) headed zamminitra economic development Sergey Nazarov. He is familiar with the situation in the region from 1998 to 2010, Nazarov was Vice-Governor of the Rostov region, was in charge of Industry and Energy of the region, bordering with Ukraine. The Commission, which, according to RBC, representatives of all departments at the level of Deputy Minister (the list of members of the IAC are in the editorial office), is engaged not only the organization of humanitarian convoys, but also almost all the development of the economy of self-proclaimed republics.
During the year fighting in the Donbass Russia sent 29 humanitarian convoys affected areas.
According to RBC information, Nazarov March 5 held a meeting of businessmen of the Southern Federal District of Russia with representatives of the DNR and LNR, which discussed the scheme of legal foreign trade activities of Russian enterprises with the self-proclaimed republics. Shortly after the meeting, the head of DNR Zakharchenko said: "The banking system is almost ready, but we need someone to recognize us." In April, the DNI has recognized South Ossetia. This recognition helps to unrecognized republicsget on financial relations with the outside world - say two people from the leadership of the DNI. National Bank DNI open accounts in the National Bank of South Ossetia. This republic recognized by Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua and Nauru. National Bank of South Ossetia has a correspondent account in the Bank of Moscow, through which funds are transferred to the DNI in Russia, and later in other countries, explained RBC scheme is one of the employees of the Ministry of Finance DNI. RBC source in the Russian government confirmed that in mid-May, representatives of the Bank of Moscow met with Nazarov. National Bank of South Ossetia did not respond to a request to RBC. refused to "comment on rumors," The Bank of Moscow.
Specialized agencies of the Russian government control and other areas of the economic life of the unrecognized territories.
In the spring of 2015 Ministry of Labour monitored the "implementation of the plan of pensions ensure payment activities and social benefits" in DNR and LNR, a government source said in May the audit report was considered at the commission Nazarov. At the same time the commission considered the analytical note RISS "On social-eknomic situation in the Donbass ", where, among other things, refers to" the need to force the creation of a sovereign's financial and banking system of the DNI, LC. "
At the time of publication of the article Ministry of Economic Development and the Ministry of Labor did not provide answers to the RBC request.
Zones T1 and T2
"A necessary tool [...] would be the provision of border regions of Russia mediation for establishing trade relations with the unrecognized republics foreign consumers", - stated in the recommendations of the RISS.
Indeed, most of the supply in the self-proclaimed republic and export their products outside go through informal schemes, and their alignment as the Russian government is involved.
Russian businessmen are involved in coal export operations, mined in mines and LC DNI. The observers of the OSCE mission, located at the checkpoints "Gukovo" and "Donetsk" (Rostov region), fixed the export dump trucks of coal in their reports to the territory of Russia from October, 2014. In mid-May, the head of the Customs Service Andrei LCArpak, he said that the volume of coal export from Russia in the LC are within 3 ths. tons per day.
Supply of coal in Russia is engaged LLC "Uglesnab" from mines, the source told RBC in the government and two members of the coal industry and DNR LC. The company "Uglesnab" addressed to the head of the government commission Nazarov requesting the inclusion in the list of companies eligible for the foreign economic activity in the zones T1, T2, told RBC source close to the commission. This term refers to the DNI and LC, illustrate the government official and the administration of a member of one of the unrecognized territories.
Head of "Uglesnab", registered in February 2015, is Sergey Velmitsky brother Andrew Velmitskogo, ex-deputy of the Legislative Assembly of the Rostov region. One day with "Uglesnabom" Company "Eksportugol" was registered on the same legal address, which is also headed by Sergei Velmitsky. The owner of both companies listed Galina Sulina. Shortly after registering on a specialized site got a lot of coal tradersNumerical ad "Eksportuglya" of coal sales from the warehouse in the city Gukovo Rostov, which is 1.5 km from the Russian-Ukrainian border, and has road and rail links with the LC. According to the numbers listed on the company's sites, the correspondent RBC recommended to leave a message for Sergey and Galina Velmitskogo Sulina administrators hotel "East" in the mine. Soon, the correspondent RBC called back the man who introduced himself as the CEO of "Eksportuglya" Constantine Faymann. He said: "We have nothing to do with" Uglesnabu "and Velmitskomu. We will not apply for work in Ukraine. Coal us from the Rostov region, with DNR and LNR we do not cooperate. "
Coal Ukrainian Donbas and Rostov region - mineral from one basin, they have the same characteristics, so the scheme with the company seal is plausible, says co-chairman of Ukrainian Fund of Energy Strategies Dmitry Marunich.
According to RBC reports, in May, the Commission Nazarova with the Foreign Ministry and Russian Railways considered the question of the possibility of transportglya of T1 and T2 zones in the Russian ports of the Azov-Black Sea basin. We are talking about the opening of the interstate rail joints Assumption - Kvashino (border of Rostov and Donetsk regions) and Gukovo - Krasnaya Mogila (the border of the Rostov and Luhansk regions).
How much is the war
The cost of fighting in the Donbas by militias count as difficult as finding sources of funding for insurgent groups. "On both sides of the data does not reflect the reality, since both sides are controlled from the outside - Ukraine receives military aid from the West, and the New Russia - Moscow", - said RBC Russian military analyst Boris Rozhin, maintain close contact with the Donetsk and Lugansk. Part of the costs - "absolutely non-public", he said.
Data on the cost of keeping one soldier militia differ. The amount and frequency of payments dependent on the division and phase of hostilities: the aggravation of fighting daily allowances grew in the period of truce, on the contrary, decreased. payments Fork: 10 thousand rubles.. per month for the rank and file, to 120-150 thousand. For senior officers. The second reason is the complexity of the calculations - non-permanent size of the Army of People's Republics. According to the People's Militia LNR, in mid-March, the number of the army of the two republics was 60 thousand. Man, and in April had increased to 70 thousand. People (more recent data are not available). Poroshenko in May 2015 estimated the number of militia 40 thousand. Man. Based on the official figures of the militia salaries of military personnel (by 10.5 thousand. Rub. For the rank and file up to 14 thousand. Rub. Or higher for officers), the monthly salary only for the military of the two republics is spent not less than 631 million rubles. Expert estimates are generally higher: estimates of ex-deputy of the Verkhovna Rada Andriy Senchenko January talking about $ 1.5 million per day (2.25 billion rubles a month.); authors Boris Nemtsov "Putin report. War ", operating figures from open sources and their assessments of the Russian military presence in the Donbass (6 th. Volunteers) make the conclusion about the amount of 2.1 billion rubles. per month for the maintenance of only the Russians and 2.5 billion rubles. per month for the maintenance of the local militia.
The participation of Russian companiesand agencies in the economic transactions could lead to sanctions against them. Spring Transport Minister Simon DNI Kuzmenko explained in this regard: "We have a number of legal technicalities, according to which the Railways are not allowed to interact with us without the participation of Kiev."
Railways spokesman Dmitry Murashev told RBC that the Railways does not perform regular transportation of goods in the south-eastern regions of Ukraine, and any other statements do not correspond to reality.
The budgets of the DNI and LC except for pensions, there is another big item of expenditure, which is exactly almost completely lies on the shoulders of Russian - wasting energy.
In February, "Naftogaz Ukraine" cut off valve on the gas pipeline in the Donbass. To prevent the gas blockade, "Gazprom" has begun delivery of fuel to the territory controlled by DND and LNR, through measuring stations "Prokhorovka" (the border of the Rostov region and LC) and "Platovo" (the border of the Rostov region and DNI). Press Secretary Dmitry Medvedev Natalia Timakova explains: "Deliveries of gas to the southeast in kahonors the humanitarian aid will be delivered "Gazprom" on a commercial basis. " "Naftogaz Ukraine", in turn, refused to pay for the gas that goes through the "Prokhorovka" and "Platovo".
Since the beginning of the year until April 21, the company has put in the Donbas 555 million cubic meters. meters of gas at $ 174.2 million (more recent data "Gazprom" has not provided), but "Naftogaz" refuses to "recognize and pay", said previously the head of "Gazprom" Alexey Miller. "We believe that this contract - DNR and LNR are a part of Ukraine - must be paid contract holder. This region within Ukraine, gas is consumed there. What it should be paid? "- Said RBC deputy chairman of" Gazprom "Alexander Medvedev.
During the fighting in Donbass ruined about 40,000 entrepreneurs, Russian experts say.
However, the experience of other unrecognized republics shows that "Gazprom" can supply gas and without receiving payment. More than 20 years does not pay for gas Transnistria. "Gazprom" gas supplies to Moldova, but part of it goes to notriznannuyu republic. "Transnistrian debt" Moldova to "Gazprom" has exceeded $ 5.2 billion.
The debt to Russia work and power. The only source of electricity in the LNR - coming from the Russian high-voltage line 500 kW "Victory-mines", it was built in the 50s of the twentieth century, and practically was not used before the war. Now this line republic daily receives 600 MW of electricity.
Electricity supplies to Ukraine going by the agreement between the Russian "Inter RAO" and "Ukrinterenergo" of December, 2014. Also, this contract provides for the delivery of electricity in the Ukrainian Crimea. For the first quarter 2015, "Inter RAO" Ukraine exported 1.24 billion kWh, more than a third of this volume, amounting to about 800 million rubles., Had to supply to the LC and the DNI. In April Kiev demanded to exclude from the Agreement for the supply of electricity on the lines leading to the territory of the militias. But representatives of the breakaway republics believe that Ukraine should pay for electricity, which they continue to transfer payments for consumed electricity. "Wenot out of the power market of Ukraine and list them money, "- says in a conversation with RBC Coal and Energy Minister Dmitry Ljamin LC. This was confirmed in the "Lugansk Energy Association", which is a supplier of electricity in the territory of the LC. Acknowledge receipt of this money could not be in Kiev. "We do not comment on the situation in the occupied territories," - said the spokesperson of the Ministry of Energy Anna Dudka.
* * *
In May, the streets of Donetsk appeared billboards "DNI: everything is just beginning!" - An advertising campaign for the nationalization of businesses owned by businessmen who had settled on the Ukrainian side. List of companies updated: famous mine them. Zasyadko, gas transport system, Starobeshevskaya TPP, bus stations, markets and supermarkets trading network ATB. With the nationalization of the DNR tries to resolve the monthly cash problems.
Only in July, the DNR plans to pay pensions and benefits in the amount of 2.65 billion rubles., Told RBC Zakharchenko administration.
In any case Moscow did not give up butorossiyu and hunger will not allow it, promises the source close to the leadership of the Russian government.