Who controls the production of fish in Russia

Vitaly Orlov's companies have 15% of quotas for cod, pollock and herring.
The largest Russian fishermen may with annual revenues of $ 500-600 million, turned out to be a graduate of the Murmansk morehodki Vitaly Orlov. Within a few years he was able to create a holding company, which has overtaken not only controlled Far senators and governors of the company, but also considered until now the industry leader Russian fishing company Gleb Frank and Maxim Vorobyov.

"The complex and absolutely non-public man" - describes the "Carat" Holding owner Orlova former federal official. He recognized that poorly represents the history of the businessman, and asks him not to mention his name - "not to quarrel." "About Orlova nobody heard in Russia, as well as about his Ocean Trawlers», - said the representative of a large fishing Far East Holding. "I met with Orlov only four years ago. Prior to that, Orlov Russia almost did not appear, "- continues interlocutor" Vedomosti ". Orlov noted only in 2011, when his company began to aggressively buy assets, said one market participant. According to him, the market is more aware of desksEPA Orlov - the former deputy head of the State Fisheries Committee Tugusheva Alexander, who was engaged in all joint Orlov business in Russia.

For fishermen it is nonsense. After all, the owners of the largest companies working in this industry for 15-20 years. They perfectly know all about each other - which is currently alien ship and how much someone was producing fish 10 years ago. Orlov - an exception that proves the rule. Although he is found "Vedomosti", is engaged in the fishing trade and production for nearly a quarter century.

Swedish sailor and Murmansk sailors

Orlov owns 67% shares of JSC "Holding Norebo". It controls 10 companies engaged in fishing in the North and Far East of Russia - in the Barents, Okhotsk and Bering Seas. Together, they own 15% of the Russian quotas for the most popular types of fish - pollock, cod and herring (see infographic.). Statistics on the catch of fish not reveal neither the market participants nor Rosrybolovstvo.

In "Norebo holding" also includes numerous foreign trade missions comAANII - in Europe, Asia and America. According to the company, its turnover in 2013 amounted to about $ 500 million. Manages all this extensive farm holding "Karat".

"Vitaly is now on vacation, so it is impossible to contact," - said the press service of the holding "Karat" on request "Vedomosti" about the interview with Orlov. "He is a man of peace, I do not even know where he is at the moment - in Murmansk, Vladivostok, Hong Kong, London or elsewhere. Catch Orlov is impossible ", - smiles his friend. Unable to "Vedomosti" to detect and photograph. The history of the creation of joint companies with Orlov said in a 2011 interview with Norwegian magazine Norsk Fiskerinaering his partner - Swede Magnus Roth.

It all began in the 1980s., When a young naval officer Roth met with the owner of the company Joint Trawlers Niels Vergardenom which the USSR granted the exclusive right to export all their fish. After working for a short time on Wergard, Roth knew that he himself will be able to trade in the Russian fish. He created a trading company Scansea. That was the first foreign company otkryvshd in 1991, an office in Murmansk. The staff of this office, which Roth has entrusted to negotiate with Russian fishermen may and became Orlov. At that time, he had just graduated from the Murmansk Higher Marine Engineering College. Friend Orlova - Tugushev also graduated from Murmansk Merchant Navy, but two years earlier, in the meantime set up in Murmansk fishing company "Karat" and began to sell fish Scansea.

The publisher and advertiser

By 2001, Orlov was not only the biggest seller of cod in Norway, but also got useful political connections in Moscow. Together with the then Deputy SUE "Kremlin" Presidential Administration Andrei Aivazov fishermen may set up a joint company "Rusinterinform". The founders of the company were "Norebo Invest" (51%) Orlova and "Yunitroniks" Aivazova. The Directors 'Rusinterinforma' Council in 2001 and included the head of the State Unitary Enterprise "Kremlin", is now better known as a producer of Vladimir Putin and founder of Fund "Federation" Vladimir Kiselyov. As said earlier "Vedomosti" Kiselev, due to the fish business helped himnearing a Western show business stars. According to him, once I asked an acquaintance to help out his friend, who had a few fishing vessels, but there were problems with the license for fishing in the Baltic Sea. This friend is the leader of the cult band Jethro Tull Ian Anderson. Kiselev, according to him, used his St. Petersburg communication and helped Anderson to get a license. As Kiselev met with Orlov, is unknown. They created the company began far from rybodobychi things: advertising through its subsidiary "Sitigrad" and publishing projects through the company "Mediasigma". "Initially, the idea was the creation of a joint media project, but the project has not received later development", - said the representative of the "Carat".

Business went, but Roth Orlov wanted more. As recognized by Mouth, "he did not want to just buy and sell, but also to expand the business and build the foundation for the future." Norwegian partners Rota, on the other hand, were only focused on trade. Therefore, in 1996, Roth left Scansea and with Orlov, who had by then moved to Norway Drobak, in 1997 at theKill the new company - Ocean Trawlers. Roth and Orlov got it for 33% of the shares, another 34% went to Danish company Tiffin Holding Ltd (Betriftsdatabaseninfo Norwegian resource data).

Familiar Orlova told "Vedomosti" that the Dutch company represented in Ocean Trawlers Tugusheva interests, which became an equal partner Orlov and Rota. Find this and other evidence, "Vedomosti" failed. Tugushev declined to comment.

In recognition of Rota magazine Norsk Fiskerinaering, he decided to make a bet on the sale of Russian fishermen used Norwegian vessels. As explained Roth, Russian fishermen in 1997 delivered for processing in Norway 100 000 tonnes of fresh fish for which they were paid NOK 6 per 1 kg. But if fishing trawlers were equipped with their own frozen fish, then they could help out already at 10-12 crowns per 1 kg, explained the benefits of cooperation with Ocean Trawlers Roth. According to the average exchange rate for 1997 it turned out that the fishermen could double revenues - from $ 80 million to $ 160 million.

In 1998, Ocean Trawlers bought the first Norwegian ship Ole Saetermer (built in 1978) and gave it to rent with option to buy fishing company "Warm & raquo; Tugusheva. The ship was renamed "Emerald". "It was a good deal on" Emerald "was its production of frozen fillets, and we were able to sell the finished product," - recalls the familiar Tugusheva.

Over the next five years, with Orlov's mouth set in Russia for at least 15 trawlers. The main buyer of vessels were Company Tugusheva their partner, which has become by 1998 the vice-president of the consortium "Murmansk Trawl Fleet" and co-owner of several fishing companies.

"During this period, for the construction of new vessels has not been possible to obtain the necessary funding, so the only option for increasing the profitability of Russian fishing companies was the transition from the old Soviet vessels, many of which were not equipped with even freezing equipment, more modern, though, and were in operation, trawlers ", - said the representative of the" Carat ". According to him, cooperation with Ocean Trawlers was mutually beneficial: the fishermen received a more modern vessel capable of better and more expensive products. It grew and rentabtivity Ocean Trawlers from trading these products.

And in September 2003 Tugushev was appointed deputy head of the State Fisheries Committee, which was then headed by former Governor of the Primorsky Territory Eugene Nazdratenko. However, for a long time he could not hold out in this chair.

Flight to Hong Kong

"Orlov with their partners so abruptly started that a few years in Norway were surprised to find that up to 80% of the market of the country controls the cod Ocean Trawlers», - says businessman familiar.

Familiar Tugusheva believes that Norwegian fishermen have frightened not only the sales of Ocean Trawlers. The company threatened the existence of the entire industry Norwegian fish processing. On the acquired trawlers Tugushev set then freezing equipment. As a consequence, a lot of Norwegian factories, which used Russian companies supplying fresh fish, were left without raw material and closed.

Not surprisingly, in 2004, Orlov partners fell into trouble. The Norwegian tax authorities have started checking Ocean Trawlers, and on the national Norwegian TV channel NRK showed zhurnaliscal investigation "Predatory fishermen." It Ocean Trawlers was accused of corruption and illegal fishing organization fish. The author of the film in an interview with Rune Etreberg Norwegian edition Jornalisten said that three years collecting documents and data on all fishing vessels, related to Ocean Trawlers. He is confident that the company was engaged in illegal fishing. According to the journalist, from sources in the Russian police, he received the documents that Tugushev, being an official, continued to work with Ocean Trawlers. Etreberg said that among the documents was and fax confirming the transfer of 20 000 euros, which sent Ocean Trawlers' Miss Tugusheva a luxury hotel in the Canary Islands. "

At the same time there were problems in Russia and Tugusheva. He was accused of patronage Ocean Trawlers and that under his direction the fish caught by fishermen Arkhangelsk comes only this Norwegian company. The government, however, to open letters of fishermen did not react. But in the end the official landed in jail at all for another. In the Far East the company complained Tugusheva "Pollux", which is the official for a bribe of $ 3.7 million if noobeschal allocate quotas for 50,000 tonnes of pollock. In 2004 Tugusheva and his accomplices taken into custody in 2007, the ex-officer got six years in prison.

Familiar Tugusheva says that he did not plead guilty and believed that it thus took her old team, Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov (headed the government in 2000-2004.), Dissatisfied with the distribution of quotas. "Since 2004, introduced a quota system of distribution on the historical principle, and even theoretically impossible to draw someone more, and someone has to select a quota", - said the source "Vedomosti".

The Ocean Trawlers also do not recognize charges of journalists and the tax authorities. Roth referred to the lack of professionalism of the consultants of the Directorate of Fisheries in Norway, which do not take into account the difference between Russian and Norwegian law.

"The story of the Tugusheva no relation to the activities of Ocean Trawlers has not, as all of its assets, he got rid of during the transition to public service," - said the representative of the "Carat". But the prosecution Tugusheva undoubtedly had a negative impact on business and the reputationation of the company, he says. It was believed that Tugushev to go to the civil service controlled to 10 fishing companies in Karelia, Murmansk and Arkhangelsk regions, and two - in the Far East. Later, they moved under the control of Orlov and Rota.

The prosecution Ocean Trawlers in illegal activities as a result has not been confirmed, but Roth decided to move to Hong Kong. He is seven years old did not communicate with the media, said Norsk Fiskerinaering magazine. "The changing market conditions, as well as suspicion of the Norwegian authorities and partners caused Tugusheva business in Russia, was a factor that influenced the decision to move to Hong Kong Ocean Trawlers," - said the representative of the "Carat".

After China in Russia

In Hong Kong holding company structure was changed. 100% of the Hong Kong Ocean Trawlers has been issued to the start of the 2006 Hong Kong companies Three Towns Capital Ltd, which is owned in equal shares considered Roth and Orlov. Familiar Tugusheva said that this was not the case as well as in the Norwegian company, Three Towns Capital Ltd had three equal co-owner - Orlov, Roth and offshore Lexagone Invest. The interlocutor of "Sheets" suggests that in the offshore was aboutformlena share at that time was under arrest Tugusheva. Confirmation of this information, "Vedomosti" could not be obtained. The representative of the "Carat" argues that Tugushev went out of business in 2004, when preparing to become official.

Bet on Hong Kong itself quickly justified. "By 2010, Ocean Trawlers has become the biggest supplier of cod and haddock in the Barents Sea. Every fifth piece of fried cod or haddock, who eats Brit delivers our company ", - told the magazine mouth Norsk Fiskerinaering. The former president of the Hong Kong Three Towns Capital Ltd Gunnar Mansfeld, who dealt with the formation of the group in 2006-2011., On his page on LinkedIn reports that Russian investors helped transform Ocean Trawlers in the global fishing industry leader with annual revenues of $ 600 million.

In December 2009, Tugushev was released and returned to the "Carat" to the position of vice-president. And after some time, the group has started an aggressive buying of assets. In the summer of 2011 with the Eagles Tugusheva bought the Governor Sergei Darkin of the Primorsky Territory for $ 50 million (data "Kommersant") maritime company "Roliz" inNovember of the same year - a major player on the Kamchatka Peninsula, the company "Akros." Almost immediately after that Prutkov Yuri, a former boss and business partner Tugusheva, was bought by "Murmansk Trawl Fleet" (ITF) - one of the largest players in the Barents Sea. "Magadantralflot", "East Coast", "Sakhalin Leasing Fleet" were also acquired in the next two years. On consolidation of all assets left more than $ 500 million, most of which - Sberbank loans, knows close to shareholders "Karat" source.

Representative holding this information does not comment, citing commercial secrecy. According to him, Sberbank loans purchase group since 2005

Along with "Karat" acquired companies received quotas for 160 000 tonnes of pollock in the Far East basin, which made him the fourth player in the region. In the North Basin quotas for cod after purchase MTF almost doubled. "Karat" was the only Russian group, which occupies leading positions immediately to the north and east of Russia. And on the total size of fish quotas it is more than 00 1000 m ahead of the second player in the market - Russian fishing company.

After buying the assets it is time to re-format the group again. In 2013, the parent company of the group was the Russian "Norebo holding" in which Orlov was already 67%, and its Swedish partner's mouth remained with a share of 33%. Hong Kong Ocean Trawlers Orlov with Roth bought owned "Norebo holding" in his own Three Towns Capital, it is now, and the whole chain of foreign trade companies.

Property division

It was in the midst of buying fishing enterprises Orlov Russian authorities decided to get rid of the foreign companies that control fishing in the Russian economic zone. The fact that rybodobycha in Russia equaled to strategic sectors, affecting the security of the country. Foreign companies can not own more than 49% in companies engaged in fishing operations.

But it turned out that in addition to the Orlov Russian passports there and Norwegian. Familiar Tugusheva recalls that the Eagles had become the face of the holding company in Russia and its main owner. Foreign citizenship mean a real threatbusiness, up to the loss of fishing quotas.

dual citizenship Orlova fact confirmed by the data from the decision of the Commercial Court of Primorsky Territory. In January 2014, the Court requested the company "Roliz" want to cancel the penalty of FAS 500 000 rubles. As described in the judgment, the Federal Antimonopoly Service considered the purchase of "Roliz" Company "East Coast" and found that the buyer is the beneficiary holder of dual citizenship Orlov. Antimonopolschiki felt that the time Orlov citizen of Norway, is controlled by him "Roliz" is a foreign investor, and had to get government permission to buy 100% "East Coast". "Roliz" court lost.

The representative of the "Carat" states that Orlov in July 2014 refused to Norwegian citizenship.

The representative of the Russian Federal Fisheries Agency could not provide comments on this topic. But close to the department officials acknowledged that no one knows exactly how to select a quota for foreign companies. "The ban is, and quota exemption mechanism is nowhere spelled out, and there is no practice" - sums up to"Vedomosti" esednik.