Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky (born 26 June 1963) is an exiled Russian businessman, philanthropist and former oligarch, now resident in Switzerland.
In 2003, Khodorkovsky was believed to be the wealthiest man in Russia (with a fortune estimated to be worth $15 billion) and was ranked 16th on Forbes list of billionaires, but in October 2003, he was arrested and charged with fraud. With shares of Yukos frozen, much of Khodorkovsky's wealth evaporated. After Hans-Dietrich Genscher lobbied for his release, President Vladimir Putin pardoned Khodorkovsky, releasing him from jail on 20 December 2013.
Upon being pardoned by Putin and released from prison at the end of 2013, Khodorkovsky immediately left Russia and was granted residency in Switzerland. At the end of 2013, his personal estate was believed to be worth, as a rough estimate, $100–250 million. At the end of 2014, he was said to be worth about $500 million. In December 2016, a court unfroze $100m of Khodorkovsky's assets that had been held in Ireland.
In 2014, Khodorkovsky re-launched Open Russia to promote several reforms to Russian civil society, including free and fair elections, political education, protection of journalists and activists, endorsing the rule of law, and ensuring media independence. He has been described by The Economist as "the Kremlin’s leading critic-in-exile".